Below you'll find a listing of Ministry for Primary Industries technical papers.
MAF is working toward implementation of an import health standard for vessel biofouling. An understanding is needed of the range of options available to manage biofouling on non-compliant vessels and the risks that are associated with their application. Decisions about risk mitigation must balance biosecurity needs with those of New Zealand’s other values. This project identified the consequences of different biofouling management options under various scenarios of non-compliance.
The aim of this report is to provide MAF Biosecurity New Zealand with objective information on the relative welfare impacts (‘humaneness’) of the vertebrate pest control tools used in New Zealand.
- How humane are our pest control tools (1661 KB)?
This report summarises the development of a computer model to provide a framework for decision support either prior to or following a equine influenza outbreak in New Zealand.
The aquaculture readiness data project investigated the data available to support biosecurity efforts in the aquaculture industry (Phase I) and the potential development of defined areas based on the concept of epidemiological units (Phase II).
- Aquatic Animal Pest and Disease Readiness Planning and Intelligence – Phase I (223 KB)
- Aquatic Animal Pest and Disease Readiness Planning and Intelligence – Phase II (8852 KB)
The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) commissioned a two stage research project to understand the average New Zealanders viewpoint on animal welfare. The first stage consisted of a quantitative online survey of 1,006 individuals. The European Commission “Eurobarometer” survey (a large scale survey of a similar nature conducted across Europe) was used as a starting point for questionnaire development, and where possible, results have been compared between the two surveys.
Livestock are "stood off" pasture (therefore cannot graze) before transport (to slaughter) as part of routine management in many cases. One of the principle drivers behind this is to reduce the accumulation of stock effluent. However, there is some uncertainty about the optimum time for standing off feed with regard to animal welfare and carcase quality. This project is to inform NAWAC for the relevant code development. It looks at physiological and behavioural parameters relevant to welfare and at meat quality parameters in sheep held off pastures for different lengths of time.
- The animal welfare implications of depriving sheep of feed to facilitate transport and slaughter (419 KB)
The Fiordland Marine Area is a region of outstanding natural character and biodiversity and supports a range of coastal industries important to regional economies. These important values can be put at risk through the unintentional introduction of non-indigenous marine species into this environment, and recognition of this has led to the development of a biosecurity management operational plan recommendations for the region.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Typhimurium DT160 in New Zealand between 1999 and 2009, and to examine the genetic relatedness of isolates obtained from three sources: avian species, poultry environments and humans over this time period.
- Characterisation of Salmonella (306 KB)
The Biosecurity Strategy 2003 identifies that a more proactive approach is needed in assessing emerging threats, including identification and management of pathways to prevent the entry establishment and spread of potential pests. Specifically, there is an expectation in relation to domestic pest management that there are transparent and effective performance measures to monitor and forecast the establishment of pests via pathways.
- Slowing Pest Spread (3859 KB)
Xylella fastidiosa is a regulated plant pathogen in many parts of the world. To increase diagnostic capability of X. fastidiosa a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed to the rimM gene of X. fastidiosa, and evaluated for specificity, sensitivity and reliability. The assay was more robust than existing published assays for detection of X. fastidiosa when screened against 20 isolates representing the four major subgroups of the bacterium, and a range of host species.
This project on newborn lambs investigated the potential of residual suppressors of awareness to dull pain perception by assessing EEG responsiveness to noxious stimulation in lightly anaestetised lambs; to determine whether changes occur in the EEG of an animal species born neurologically mature over the first few minutes and days after birth and to measure the concentrations of the neuroinhibitory steroid allopregnanolone in newborn lambs to assess the potential for modulation of conscious perception.
Vessel biofouling as a vector for the introduction of non-indigenous marine species to New Zealand: Slow-moving barges and oil platforms
This study provides a snap-shot of biofouling on eight slow-moving vessels (barges, tugs and a supply vessel) and an oil rig. A diverse range of fouling organisms was found on these vessels; including non-indigenous and cryptogenic species. Three factors that appear to make slow-moving vessels a high risk pathway for non-indigenous species introduction:
- non-traditional shipping routes;
- extended periods of time idle between voyages; and,
- low travelling speed.
- Vessel biofouling as a vector for the introduction of non-indigenous marine species to New Zealand: Slow-moving barges and oil platforms (1001 KB)
This project focused on understanding the seroprevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) in New Zealand blood donors. In particular whether there was a risk of exposure to WNV for blood donors who had travelled to WNV endemic areas prior to blood donation. The diagnostic capability developed in this study can be applied in future human surveillance for vector-borne diseases in New Zealand which will directly improve capability and preparedness in the event of an incursion of WNV or its vectors.
Vessel biofouling as a vector for the introduction of non-indigenous marine species to New Zealand: Fishing vessels
This project examined the extent of biofouling on fishing vessels arriving in New Zealand and focused on fishing vessels entering New Zealand ports from outside New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), including both foreign and domestically flagged vessels. A total of eight vessels were sampled. Specimens sampled from vessels belonged to ten phyla, and included predominantly sessile taxa (ascidians, bryozoans, barnacles, bivalves, hydroids, algae and tubeworms). Mobile species sampled included amphipods, crabs and chitons. Of the taxa identified to species level, approximately 54% were non-indigenous to New Zealand, 40% were indigenous and 5% were cryptogenic (i.e. of unknown origins). The results indicated that, following operation outside New Zealand's EEZ, fishing vessels that enter New Zealand ports are potentially fouled with non-indigenous species, including those species already established in New Zealand. However, the fouling extent on the majority of vessels sampled was low.
- Vessel biofouling as a vector for the introduction of non-indigenous marine species to New Zealand: Fishing vessels (1699 KB)
The aim of this project was to design and develop a novel system for delivering local anaesthetic from rubber rings for providing pain relief during castration of lambs and then establish proof of concept. The novel system evaluated was to release local anaesthetic from the rubber ring directly into the underlying tissue. Proof of concept involved a determination of the ability for the rubber rings, impregnated with local anaesthetic, to reduce the pain associated with ring castration.
The aim of this project was to identify appropriate species distribution models as tools to assess New Zealand’s environmental suitability for the potential establishment of selected freshwater invertebrates known to be invasive elsewhere in the world. Information gained from this project will enable early detection of potential freshwater pests through specifically targeted freshwater surveillance programmes.
Prior to discharging ballast water ships carrying overseas ballast are required to conduct mid-ocean ballast water exchange. One method of verifying this compliance may be by measuring the concentrations of certain chemical tracers in ballast tanks to check if they have been diluted well below the concentrations in the source port. Australian source port waters were investigated to investigate suitable tracers to use.
Currently, shipping containers that arrive in New Zealand that are found to require treatment against invasive pests are fumigated with methyl bromide.There is an internationally driven need to develop safer replacement methods that are also less detrimental to the environment. One Generally Recognised As Safe (GRAS) compound under consideration is ozone, which is safer and does not leave residues. This report describes a series of tests to determine the efficacy of ozone against a range of invertebrate pest species that may be associated with shipping containers. A range of materials which included paint and steel were also exposed to ozone to evaluate if it caused detectable deterioration. Findings from the research indicated that ozone may be useful as a future biosecurity treatment.
Biology and ecology of the introduced ascidian Eudistoma elongatum, and trials of potential control options
This report investigates the biology and ecology of the introduced sea squirt, Eudistoma elongatum, in Northland, New Zealand. Eudistoma was first reported in New Zealand in 2005 and is now well established in several Northland harbours. New Zealand is the first known location where Eudistoma is showing invasive characteristics. The report also investigates and discusses possible control options for Eudistoma, as well as describing the habitats and structures that it may affect in the future.
- Biology and ecology of the introduced ascidian Eudistoma elongatum, and trials of potential control options (3061 KB)
Development of Rapid Molecular Test and Cell Culture Procedures for the Detection and Identification of Iridoviruses
This project involved the development and validation of real time PCR assays to identify iridoviruses that have the potential to impact upon native fish and amphibian populations and fisheries/aquaculture industries. The iridoviruses of concern are ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses, with a particular interest in gourami iridovirus. The project also involved the validation of cell culture procedures for the isolation of target iridoviruses.
- Development of Rapid Molecular Test and Cell Culture Procedures for the Detection and Identification of Iridoviruses (209 KB)
The Petroleum Industry provides substantial economic and energy benefits to New Zealand. With an increase in exploration activity, there are concerns regarding aquatic invasive species entering NZ waters on semi-submersible oil rigs, as at present there is no management for this pathway. As semi-submersible oil rigs are planning to operate in NZ waters, this report describes the feasibility of using an enclosure based treatment option to treat biofouling on the submerged surfaces of semi-submersible oil rigs.
Pleasure craft such as yachts and launches have been shown to be a high risk pathway for entry to New Zealand of aquatic marine species as biofouling. MAFBNZ intends to establish controls on this pathway by which vessels, assessed as above an agreed risk threshold on arrival, will be required to be cleaned in approved facilities. These facilities are likely to be boat yards/marinas that can haul vessels out of the water but MAFBNZ is also interested in alternative options that may be used to treat fouled vessels. This report describes the design, operation and costs associated with a reusable floating enclosure that can fit around a range of yacht hull shapes in order to kill all biofouling organisms through anoxia or from the addition of chemicals or a combination of these. Ideally, this type of system can be developed to the stage where a system can be easily installed at a point of departure (i.e. Tonga/Fiji) or into a port of first arrival in New Zealand.
Joule Heating of Export Logs - An Investigation of Joule heating of Pinus radiata export logs as an alternative to Methyl Bromide fumigation – Stage I
The project was Stage I of a multi-stage project to investigate the feasibility of implementing a new method for treating logs prior to export, as an alternative to chemical fumigation. Initial testing carried out by the University of Canterbury showed that applying electrical energy direct to unseasoned Radiata pine posts, using a technique called Joule Heating, could heat them to a suitable temperature to satisfy the international heat treatment standard ISPM 15.
- Joule Heating of Export Logs - An Investigation of Joule heating of Pinus radiata export logs as an alternative to Methyl Bromide fumigation – Stage I (605 KB)
This report conducted a worldwide review of any potential underwater hull cleaning technologies that showed promise to contain and capture biological and chemical contamination. Technologies for cleaning both the main hull of the vessel and niche areas (e.g. sea chests, bow thrusters, propellers and propeller shafts) are discussed, as well as the practical considerations for using the technologies. The author also conducted a review of marine fouling and its effects on ship propulsive fuel use, as well as discussions of present and future toxic and non-toxic antifouling paints. Finally, the application and removal of underwater hull coatings and the environmental aspects of ship hull coatings was discussed.
MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (MAFBNZ) commissioned research to map the economic, environmental, social and cultural values associated with New Zealand’s coastal and marine environments. In this study, a 'social value' refers to human activity that occurs in, the coastal and marine environment that adds value to the social well-being of New Zealanders, without already being captured as a economic, cultural (Māori) or environmental activity.
Introduced species are recognised as one of the greatest threats to natural environments worldwide. New Zealand’s ability to assess and manage these risks is significantly hampered by a lack of detailed information on the resources that should be protected: Which species are of greatest concern? What values are at risk? Where should surveillance monies be concentrated? Which incursion can or should be responded to?
To help address these questions and thereby improve risk management in the marine environment, MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (MAFBNZ) commissioned research to map the economic, environmental, social and cultural values associated with New Zealand’s coastal and marine environments.
The overall objective of this project was to explore and describe the distribution and spatial patterns of marine economic values to improve MAFBNZ’s risk analysis and risk management capabilities, allowing for more effective decision-making and biosecurity delivery.
Shipping containers imported to New Zealand are a potential vector for a range of non-native species, including spiders, insects and snails. This project investigated the possible application of microwave technology to heat invertebrate contaminants on the external surfaces of containers to lethal temperatures, to replace the current practice of using water blasters.
Garden snails (Cantareus aspersus), wax moth (Galleria mellonella) caterpillars and diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella) eggs were used. These organisms were selected to represent the types of organisms found on the outsides of containers, and also to provide a range of sizes which would enable heating effects to be explored.
In 2008 NIWA carried out a study (Environmental Value Mapping project) to assess the perceived value of New Zealand’s coastal marine environment for MAFBNZ as part of a wider project to assess the social, economic, cultural and environmental values of the New Zealand coastal area (Beaumont et al. 2008). This resulted in a spatially explicit database comprising Geographic Information System (GIS) layers representing eight subcomponents, in which a total of 14 attributes of marine environmental value were presented. Information included in the database ranged from species occurrences and diversity indices to habitat distributions and marine mammal breeding areas. The 26 datasets and their associated attribute values comprise approximately 200 unique GIS layers.
In response to a MAFBNZ request, a meta-analysis of these data has been undertaken. The aims of the present study were to summarise the spatial distribution of attribute values and to determine areas of coincidence among high-value attributes
- Mapping the Values of New Zealand’s Coastal Waters. 4. A Meta-analysis of Environmental Values (1932 KB)
The most important bulb genera in New Zealand include Allium, Tulipa, Iris and Lilium. Members of these genera are imported and exported in great numbers. To ensure that imported and exported bulbs are free from regulated viruses, sensitive testing methods that can be used on dormant bulbs are required. The aim of this project was to develop real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols for the detection of important viruses in dormant bulbs.
- Viruses of Dormant Bulbs (1688 KB)
The objective of this study was to assess the potential for dwarf bunt to establish in New Zealand. Dwarf bunt is a significant disease of winter wheat caused by the fungus Tilletia controversa Kühn. The suitability of New Zealand’s climate was assessed by combining a climate index for the establishment of dwarf bunt with a geographic information system (GIS) approach. The climate index incorporated current knowledge of climate conditions conducive to dwarf bunt development, namely cool temperatures and persistent snow cover or cloudy weather conditions. The study concluded that dwarf bunt is not likely to establish in the cereal growing districts of NZ.
The aim of this survey was to conduct a science-based comparative assessment of the welfare of laying hens in commercial production systems in New Zealand. The survey was carried out on a selection of 60 layer hen farms in the following categories: large cage, small cage, large free range, small free range, organic free range and barn. The farms were selected to represent the two major brown layer breeds (Shaver Brown, Hyline Brown) farmed in New Zealand, plus a sample of the locally-bred Ranger bird used at the time the survey was carried out by a small number of organic farms.
The research utilises both measures of biological function and the “feelings” approach to animal welfare assessment. Farm practices, flock level measures of performance and behaviour and bird level physiological measurements were examined.
The findings indicated that cage and free range layer hens are similarly adapted to their environments and show similar stress levels as measured by faecal corticosterone tests. Significant differences in mortality, feather cover and wound prevalence were found between farm types. A range of management standards was found within each farming system, though large cage farms systems showed least internal variation.
The wider pork industry makes a significant contribution to the New Zealand economy with total economic activity related to pork exceeding one billion dollars per annum (NZIER 2007). Pigs are also important in the spread of diseases which can affect other productions species e.g. FMD. Therefore, as part of contingency planning against incursions of exotic diseases, it is very important to understand how pigs and related products and materials are distributed and moved around New Zealand.
The purpose of this project was to identify, analyse and quantify movement patterns of disease conveyors in the pig industry (with particular reference to the transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) and Classical Swine Fever (CSF)) and the interactions between the pig industries component sectors; i.e. the commercial sector, para-commercial sector and non-commercial sector.
The research identified risk factors for the introduction and transmission of diseases (disease conveyors) and how these varied between types of enterprise. Seven farm types (differentiated by their varying operations and risk profiles) were defined as potential inputs to Interspread Plus for use in incursion modelling.
Plant diseases have been described where a causal agent is implicated but has not been identified. These disorders are referred to as “diseases of unknown aetiology”. Currently biological indicators are used to test imported material for such diseases; these tests are generally slow and costly.
The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of proteomics to develop a rapid and more reliable way of detecting and identifying these diseases. “Apple rubbery wood” (ARW) is a disease of unknown aetiology which has been present in New Zealand for over 60 years which was used as a model to determine if this approach might work. While the approach failed to detect any proteins generated by the pathogen, it was able to detect changes in host proteins, This indicated that it may be feasible to develop tests using this technology.
- Diseases of Unknown Aetiology (3241 KB)
Commercial-grade microwave generators were tested for use in eradication of non-indigenous marine species living within intertidal soft sediments. Variable mortality rates were obtained across the treatments. More extensive trials would be necessary to develop a unit for use in an eradication or control attempt in the field.
This report assesses a system that delivers and contains chemical treatments for the management of non-indigenous species in marine environments. The system can be deployed from land or vessel to subtidal soft sediment substrate. It is currently capable of containing and re-circulating chemical treatments to a 5 x 5 m area to depths of 20 m, but could be scaled up with minor modification.
The reproductive behaviour of the invasive ascidian, Styela clava, was investigated in Auckland from May 2006 until April 2007. Results indicate that fertilised ova were present from late September 2006 through to April 2007. A spawning event appeared to occur in early spring, but indications for spawning were also found in mid-February and mid-March. Overall, the fluctuations observed in the spawning periods are indicative of a species that is able to reproduce at different times throughout the year. There does, however, appear to be a "lull" in reproductive potential over winter and in mid spring, with peaks in early spring and late summer.
- Reproductive behaviour of the Clubbed Tunicate, Styela clava, in northern New Zealand waters (1278 KB)
Trial of a Control Programme for Non-Indigenous Crustaceans using Charybdis japonica as a case study
The development of methods by which to control and, ultimately, eradicate marine pest species is necessary to safeguard the biodiversity within New Zealand's marine environment. This requires the development of control measures that are suitable for use in a range of different aquatic environments, which do not adversely affect the surrounding natural environment and native species nor disrupt human use of marine resources.
The non-indigenous Japanese swimming crab, Charybdis japonica was first detected in New Zealand waters in 2000 and has since become widespread throughout the Waitemata Harbour, Auckland. The presence of species provided an opportunity to develop and test an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy aimed at managing marine crustaceans.
- Trial of a Control Programme for Non-Indigenous Crustaceans using Charybdis japonica as a case study (2826 KB)
The Waitemata Harbour is a large tidal estuary adjacent to New Zealand’s largest and fastest growing city. The harbour is highly valued and is used for numerous recreational and commercial purposes. A potentially important stressor in the Waitemata Harbour has been the establishment and spread of non-indigenous species (NIS); with more than 66 marine NIS having been recorded. However, the ecological consequences of NIS invasions in the Waitemata Harbour have not been fully explored. It is important to investigate the role of native biodiversity in promoting invasion resistance, and the likelihood of “invasional meltdown” in the Waitemata Harbour.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether invasions in soft-sediment habitats of the Waitemata Harbour have affected key ecosystem functions to the extent that (1) resistance to new invasions has been compromised, and (2) ecosystem services have been affected.
This investigation of housing systems in NZ was aimed at providing preliminary information about the scope and impacts of housing for dairy cattle and consisted of three parts; a veterinary survey, a producer survey and two workshops. These elements provided information about the following three areas: a) prevalence, types of housing and regional differences; b) management practices; c) perceptions of advantages, disadvantages and impacts on animal welfare.
Overall, this project confirmed that the number of dairy farmers using housing in New Zealand is still very small (no more than 3 percent). There is some indication that for many producers, use of housing facilities is a relatively new practice (average of 2.7 seasons reported).
Management decisions were generally focused around weather or season/time of year, with multiple goals relating to pasture protection, cow comfort, environment/effluent management, and stocking rate/production. All producers surveyed used their housing system in winter, with half also using it in the summer. Provision of access to pasture varied, with some cows on pasture at night, some for a fixed time during the day, and some not at all.
Determining the efficacy of incursion response tools: Rotating brush technology (coupled with suction capability)
The rotating brush systems tested in the present study are not considered appropriate to treat vessels known to be fouled with non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) or pest species, particularly taxa that can survive fragmentation. Several risks relating to this method of treatment of fouled vessels need to be investigated if this method is to be used as a method for border control of NIMS or for removing pest species in an uncontaminated area.
- Determining the efficacy of incursion response tools: Rotating brush technology (coupled with suction capability) (2061 KB)
This report describes population management options for the non-indigenous clubbed tunicate Styela clava (Styela). The broad aim of this report is to evaluate options for the management of established Styela populations in Tutukaka Marina, Lyttelton Port and Magazine Bay Marina. The report aims to identify ways of reducing the chances of Styela spreading from these three vessel movement hubs to nominated high value coastal environments around New Zealand, and to provide information on control methods and the feasibility of implementing them at various scales.
This project is the first systematic attempt to quantify measures of perceived environmental value of New Zealand’s coastal marine ecosystem through the creation of a series of spatially explicit data layers derived from existing data sources (including museum and scientific cruise records). It is anticipated that this unique project will have additional conservation and management benefits outside the biosecurity perspective.
- Mapping the Values of New Zealand’s Coastal Waters (2025 KB) - July 2008
- Environmental Value Mapping (supplementary information) (368 KB) - December 2008
A system for applying eco-friendly biocides to the intertidal marine environment is assessed for the purposes of responding to marine pest incursions. Experiments examined the efficacy of acetic acid, hydrated lime and bleach on (1) established invertebrate fouling communities, (2) the ascidian Didemnum vexillum, and (3) algal assemblages. Pre-fouled structures were spray-treated using varying concentrations and exposure times and a matrix developed to determine the lethality on a range of marine biota.
- Evaluation of marine response tools: Spray Treatments (7130 KB) - June 2008
The objective of this study was to assess the potential for Puccinia psidii (guava rust, eucalypt rust) to establish and persist in New Zealand under current and future climate scenarios. This report applied several modelling techniques to estimate the climatic suitability of New Zealand for P. psidii under a range of climate scenarios. Three approaches were used: CLIMEX Compare Locations and Match Regions, and NAPPFAST.
- The Current and Future Potential Distribution of Guava Rust, Puccinia psidii in New Zealand (1200 KB)
In March 2008 the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA) was subcontracted to The Lawless Edge Ltd (under contract to MAF Biosecurity New Zealand) to provide a review of existing information on marine biosecurity issues in the top of the South Island. This information is provided here as a stand-alone report.
This report describes the results of the first port baseline survey of Milford Sound, undertaken in June 2006. The survey provides an inventory of native, non indigenous and cryptogenic marine species within the fiord and surrounding coastal area and compares the biota with existing marine species records from the area.
- Port of Lyttleton (1969 KB) - This report describes the results of a repeat port baseline survey of the Port of Lyttelton undertaken in November 2004.
- Port of Nelson (1416 KB) - This report describes the results of a repeat port baseline survey of the Port of Nelson undertaken in December 2004.
- Port of Picton (1268 KB) - This report describes the results of a repeat port baseline survey of the Port of Picton undertaken in January 2005.
- Port of Taranaki (1444 KB) - This report describes the results of a repeat port baseline survey of the Port of Taranaki undertaken in March 2005.
- Port of Tauranga (1322 KB) - This report describes the results of a repeat port baseline survey of the Port of Tauranga undertaken in April 2005.
- Port of Timaru (1648 KB) - This report describes the results of a repeat port baseline survey of the Port of Timaru undertaken in November 2004.
- Port of Wellington (1476 KB) - This report describes the results of a repeat port baseline survey of the Port of Wellington undertaken in February 2005.
This report describes the results of a study investigating the geographic distribution of two non-indigenous crabs, Romaleon gibbosulum and Glebocarcinus amphioetus (Decapoda: Cancridae), in the North and South Island of New Zealand. In addition, we investigated their size distribution, habitats and parasite fauna in their Japanese native range. The parasite fauna of the New Zealand native crab Metacarcinus novaezelandiae (Decapoda: Cancridae) was also investigated to assess whether they have parasites that might potentially infect the two non-indigenous cancrid crabs and therefore could be used for controlling invader populations. Finally, we reviewed the diversity and occurrence of non-indigenous crabs (Brachyura) worldwide to identify patterns in their invasion biology.
The entry and establishment of infectious diseases such as highly pathogenic avian influenza, Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease would have severe consequences for the New Zealand poultry industry. Understanding how these pathogens might enter the country and spread is important, since it allows better targeting of disease control and surveillance activities.
This report describes the results of a cross-sectional survey looking at movements of feed, live birds, hatching eggs and poultry products around New Zealand. Social network analysis is used to describe and quantify the patterns of contacts these movements produce and the authors outline how this information might be used to develop and refine disease control, eradication and surveillance strategies.
As part of a larger project designed to identify risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses from wild birds to poultry and potentially to humans, this study investigated the ecology of influenza viruses in non-commercial backyard poultry in New Zealand. The research assessed whether or not non-pathogenic influenza viruses were present in backyard poultry located in close proximity to wild ducks which are known to be important hosts for avian influenza. Farms with non-commercial backyard chickens located within 15 km from Maketu Estuary or Waihi Estuary in the Bay of Plenty region and from Lake Wairarapa in the Wellington region were selected because influenza A viruses had previously been isolated from healthy mallard ducks caught in these localities.
The goal of the project was to evaluate a series of newly developed vaccines for protection of possums against bovine TB against the performance of the existing human BCG vaccine.
Possums serve as the major wildlife reservoir of bovine TB and vaccination of possums is a promising option for assisting in the long-term control and eradication of this disease.
In two trials, a total of nine new attenuated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine strains were tested in 72 possums challenged with virulent M. bovis, the bacterium which causes bovine TB. The vaccines were administered orally or by subcutaneous injection. After 7 to 8 weeks, the possums, including non-vaccinated controls, were challenged with a low dose virulent M. bovis and after a further 7 weeks, all possums were killed for pathological and microbiological examination to assess the level of protection against TB compared to the non-vaccinated animals. A number of the newly developed TB vaccines induced a level of protection which was greater than that induced by the human TB vaccine (BCG) and the levels of protection observed following vaccination with oral or injected vaccines was very similar.
Undaria pinnatifida is a large kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) native to the north western Pacific (Japan, Korea, China and the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia) (Akiyama & Kurogi 1982; Silva et al. 2002; Guiry & Guiry 2007). Since its detection in New Zealand, Undaria has spread primarily by human-mediated vectors such as vessel hulls and marine farming equipment. This species has the potential to displace native macroalgae (environmental impact), alter habitat for commercial species (environmental and economic impact), disrupt aquaculture activities (economic impact) and may affect the cultural values of particular sites.
This report examined and compared the impacts of different methods of tail switch removal (distal 2-3 vertebrae and associated hair) in 3-6 week old dairy calves. Tail switches were removed using either a rubber ring or a hot-iron and with or without local anaesthetic. Measurements of the stress hormone cortisol and behavioural changes were undertaken on the day of tail switch removal and behavioural observations continued on the following day.
MAF Biosecurity New Zealand’s (MAFBNZ’s) Incursion Response System (IRS) is a comprehensive information system designed to assist with and record operational activities conducted during an exotic disease or pest response. Whilst the system is fairly comprehensive, it has not been critically evaluated for ability to support the epidemiological analyses required for decision support during a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic. This project was designed to evaluate the database in terms of whether all relevant data required for epidemiological analyses and scrutiny of efficiency (of the organisation) and effectiveness (of the interventions) measures during a FMD epidemic are collected. The report includes recommendations on data handling, identifies gaps in data collection and recommends ways in which the New Zealand Standard FMDV Model and Interspread Plus should be improved.
New Zealand beef cattle number approximately 4.4 million, three quarters of which are farmed in the North Island (MAF, 2007). Most pastoral beef cattle systems are classified as extensive since live stock have space and freedom and are exposed to the vagaries of the climate and the environment from which they usually get all or most of their resources. In contrast, relatively few New Zealand beef cattle are housed, or raised in feed lots, systems more usually understood as intensive.
The development of a code of animal welfare for beef cattle presented an opportunity to reflect on animal welfare in New Zealand extensive pastoral farming systems. This study comprises a description of extensive beef cattle farming and animal welfare aspects of extensive systems, a review of the scientific literature on the welfare of extensively managed beef cattle and discussion of the impacts of intensifying beef cattle production.
This report describes the results of the continuation of a targeted surveillance programme for marine pests that are currently listed on the New Zealand register of Unwanted Organisms under the Biosecurity Act 1993. Surveillance began in summer 2002/2003 and continued at six-monthly intervals until winter 2004. The results of these first four surveys were reported previously (Inglis et al. 2005a). This report presents the results of the fifth survey conducted in summer 2005-2006.
- Surveillance for early detection of unwanted exotic marine organisms in New Zealand: Summer 2005-2006 (5984 KB)
Lameness causes significant suffering and compromises the welfare of cattle. Lameness also has a major impact on productivity, reducing milk production, decreasing fertility, increasing the likelihood of other diseases such as mastitis and increasing the risk of culling.
Lame cattle are known to show increased sensitivity to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia). Changes in levels of sensitivity to stimuli can offer a measure of lameness which is more objective and sensitive than gait scoring. This study evaluated the effect of lameness on reducing the nociceptive (pain) threshold in dairy cattle under New Zealand conditions and the effectiveness of current lameness treatment regimes in reducing the hyperalgesia associated with lameness.
Hull fouling is an important pathway or vector for the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) in New Zealand. This project (ZBS2005-22, summer) sought to determine the seasonal risk to marine biosecurity of vessel hull cleaning (defouling) and assess the efficacy of hull cleaning methods and effluent treatments in reducing this risk, by comparison with an initial examination of the efficacy of various hull cleaning techniques and facilities carried out in the winter of 2003 (ZBS2002-04) (Floerl et al. 2003). The five facilities assessed in ZBS2002-04 were revisited during the 2005/06 summer season. These facilities were: Lyttelton Port, Orams Marine Maintenance, Westpark Marina, Tauranga Marina and Gulf Harbour Marina.
- Efficacy of hull cleaning operations in containing biological material - I. Risk assessment (814 KB) - August 2005
- Efficacy of hull cleaning operations in containing biological material - II. Seasonal variability (1130 KB) - October 2007
- Ministry of Fisheries KMA hull cleaning guidelines (437 KB)
Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and ferrets (Mustela furo) are major conservation and animal health pests, and traps are widely used in New Zealand to control these species. In 1999, animal welfare legislation was updated (Animal Welfare Act 1999), enabling kill traps to be set and left indefinitely between checks. Following this, several new kill trap models were developed and marketed. However, because there is no requirement for trap developers to test the killing performance of their traps, there is no information available on how quickly or consistently these traps kill captured animals.
The National Animal Welfare Advisory Committee (NAWAC) has developed guidelines for trap testing to assess acceptability of trap performance. Devices which fail to meet these guidelines may be recommended for prohibition or restriction. The objective of this project was to test the killing performance of two traps on possums and two on ferrets to inform NAWAC recommendations.
This is an annual report on research which was part of a multi-year project.
The report covers work on glycolipid adjuvants for oral vaccine preparations, adjuvants and delivery systems for anti-fertility vaccines and investigations into possum specific nematodes (worms) as vectors for control agents.
Bovine Tuberculosis in Possums
The screening and evaluation of novel attenuated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine candidates for protection of possums against M. bovis infection and work on oral BCG vaccination field trials is also discussed.
The genetic diversity of the green algal genus Ulva sensu lato in New Zealand was surveyed to identify the species present, and to assess their status as native or potentially introduced entities. Data were obtained for 581 samples collected from within the New Zealand EEZ, ranging from the Kermadec Islands to the Auckland and Antipodes Islands. Both pristine and human-modified environments were represented in the sampling sites visited.
This document is available in two versions. The high resolution copy has better quality images. Please be aware that both have a large file size.
Welfare issues in the field of pest animal management are receiving increasing attention and consideration. Recent anti-1080 campaigns have targeted the effects of 1080 poisoning as an animal welfare issue, particularly given the large numbers of possums subject to this method of control.
This study sought to evaluate whether adding the anaesthetic alphachloralose (CAS # 15879-93-3) to the bait formulation could be a practical, cost effective means of reducing pain or suffering in 1080-poisoned possums.
This report describes the design and trial of a targeted surveillance programme for seven marine pests that are currently listed on the New Zealand register of Unwanted Organisms under the Biosecurity Act 1993. These are the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida, the Mediterranean aquarium weed Caulerpa taxifolia, the Northern Pacific seastar Asterias amurensis, the Mediterranean fanworm Sabells spallanzanii, the European green crab Carcinus maenas, the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, and the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. The Asian kelp U. pinnatifida is already present in New Zealand.
- Surveillance design for early detection of unwanted exotic marine organisms in New Zealand (11902 KB)
- Port of Lyttleton (2834 KB) - This report describes the results of a March 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Lyttleton.
- Port of Nelson (1634 KB) - This report describes the results of a January 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Nelson.
- Port of Picton (894 KB) - This report describes the results of a December 2001 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Picton
- Port of Taranaki (1992 KB) - This report describes the results of a April 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Taranaki.
- Port of Tauranga (2421 KB) - This report describes the results of a March 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Tauranga.
- Port of Timaru (2138 KB) - This report describes the results of a February 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Timaru.
- Port of Bluff (2522 KB) - This report describes the results of a March 2003 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Bluff.
- Port of Auckland (2857 KB) - This report describes the results of a April 2003 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Auckland.
- Port of Wellington (3250 KB) - This report describes the results of a December 2001 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Wellington.
- Port of Dunedin Harbour (Port of Otago and Port Chalmers) (3657 KB) - This report describes the results of a February 2003 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Dunedin (this includes Port Otage, located near the city of Dunedin, and Port Chalmers facility).
- Port of Gisborne (2453 KB) - This report describes the results of a January 2003 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Gisborne.
- Gulf Harbour Marina (2649 KB) - This report describes the results of a April 2003 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Gulf Harbour Marina.
- Port of Napier (2324 KB) - This report describes the results of a January 2003 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Napier.
- Opua Marina (2442 KB) - This report describes the results of a November 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Opua Marina.
- Whangarei Marina (2154 KB) - This report describes the results of a November 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Whangarei Town Basin Marina.
- Whangarei Harbour (Whangarei Port and Marsden Point) (3391 KB) -This report describes the results of a November 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marines species within the Port of Whangarei, located near the city of Whangarei, and shipping terminals at Marsden Point operated by Northport and the New Zealand Refining Company.
The overall objective of the science and technical programme is to determine validated information regarding identification, detection, distribution, containment, impact and control/eradication of Didymosphenia geminata (didymo). All reports can be found at the link below:
The purpose of this guide is to facilitate reliable and practical determinations of tortricid specimens collected in the execution of biosecurity functions in New Zealand. The guide is also useful to agencies and individuals outside of New Zealand who seek the identification of New Zealand leaf-rollers.
The guide consists of a series of integrated morphological and molecular diagnostic keys, including keys to later instar larvae, male and female adults; a table of diagnostic characters for early instar larvae; and notes for all the species. There are 374 images, most of them in colour. The images are reproduced on a CD to allow closer examination, especially of the genitalia and improved search capacity.
The list of species covered in this guide is restricted to 50 or so economically important Tortricidae species. These include taxa from New Zealand, as well as exotic Tortricidae species most likely to be introduced here.
Page last updated: 30 April 2012