Shipping requirements for Sea Transport of Livestock

Authorisation

This Manual contains MAF requirements and guidelines for the export of livestock. It was first developed in response to the need to provide for the shipping requirements of New Zealand sheep for slaughter. It has since been and will continue to be reviewed to include requirements for the shipment of other classes of livestock.

This document is issued with full regard to section 505 B (b) of the Shipping and Seamen Act 1952 and section 36(m) of the Maritime Transport Act 1994. This document must be used in conjunction with the requirements that are pursuant to those legal requirements.

Barry O'Neil
Chief Veterinary Officer

Contents

Part 1 - Introduction and prerequisite requirements for the Export Consignment

Part 2 - Requirements of the ship

Part 3 - Pen requirements

Part 4 - Inspection and acceptance of ship

Part 5 - Requirements for the loading and husbandry of the livestock

Appendix 1 - Livestock Capacity Plan

Appendix 2 - Carriage of Livestock - Master's Report

Appendix 3 - Conditions Common to All Ships

Part 1 - Introduction and prerequisite requirements for the Export Consignment

1.1 Purpose

1.1.1

The purpose of these requirements is to ensure the safety of the ship and crew, and make provision for the welfare of the sheep.

1.1.2

The requirements are issued pursuant to Section 505 B (1) (b) of the Shipping and Seamen Act 1952. They have been developed in a consultation process by the New Zealand Maritime Industry Authority and the New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry to suit the behaviour and requirements of New Zealand sheep and are based on section 36 of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 and Maritime Rule Part 24C Carriage of Specific Cargoes.

1.1.3

Section 36 of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 and Maritime Rule Part 24C requires that the master of a ship carrying livestock on a voyage from any port in New Zealand shall carry the livestock in accordance with the terms of a permit issued by a surveyor and stating:

  1. the type and number of livestock that may be carried
  2. matters that the surveyor considers necessary to ensure the safety of the ship
  3. matters that the surveyor considers necessary to ensure the welfare of the livestock, and
  4. requirements for inspection of the ship considered necessary for ensuring compliance with the permit.

1.2 Definitions

The following terms and definitions used within these requirements shall be taken as having the meanings listed below:

Chief Veterinary Officer
means the person who is appointed to that position within the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
Class
means a category of livestock differentiated by sex, age and whether they have had their tails docked and been castrated.
Competent stockman
means a person who has had experience of the behaviour, requirements, control and handling of livestock carried in a ship.
Livestock
means those animals that are usually domesticated for farming purposes and includes horses.
Director, Maritime Safety Authority
means the person who is for the time being appointed to that position within the Maritime Division of the Maritime Safety Authority.
Minister
means the Minister of Transport.
Official Veterinarian
means a civil service veterinarian or a specially appointed veterinarian as authorised by the Chief Veterinary Officer.
Recognised Authority
means any organisation or person that is recognised by the Director, Maritime Transport Division for any purpose of these requirements. The Director shall from time to time list in instructions to surveyors recognised authorities and the purposes for which they have been recognised.
Sheep
for the purpose of these requirements refers to slaughter sheep.
Slaughter sheep
means sheep exported with the intention of slaughtering.
M&I Surveyor
means a surveyor of ships appointed or recognised as such under Maritime Rule Part 46.
Uppermost continuous deck
means the uppermost complete deck of a ship that is exposed to the weather and sea, being a deck fitted as an integral part of the ship's structure, and all openings in the weather positions of which are fitted with permanent means of closing.
Young sheep
means a sheep born the previous year to be shipped before 1 July of the following year.

1.3 Application

These requirements shall apply to and in relation to all ships on which it is intended to take on, are taking on, or have on board livestock at any port in New Zealand or that are carrying such livestock to sea from any port in New Zealand.

1.4 Notification

1.4.1

Where it is intended to load livestock on a ship at a port in New Zealand, they shall not be loaded unless:

  1. the exporter, owner, master or agent of the ship has given notice (in accordance with 1.4.2) of the intention to load the livestock to the M&I surveyor of ships at that port; and
  2. an inspection of the ship and of the arrangements for the conveyance of the livestock on the ship has been made by a M&I surveyor and a Official Veterinarian and they have jointly approved the loading; and
  3. a permit for the carriage of livestock has been issued by the M&I surveyor.

1.4.2

A notice of intention to load the livestock required by 1.4.1 shall be given in writing not less than 48 hours before the time at which the ship will be available for inspection and shall include:

  1. the name of the ship;
  2. the port and berth at, and the date on, which the ship will be available for inspection;
  3. a description of the livestock proposed to be carried, including the number and estimated average weight of the livestock by class; and
  4. details of the proposed voyage including estimated passage time, stopovers for replenishing fodder and freshwater, discharge ports and the final destination.

Part 2 Requirements of the ship

2.1 Inspection of Ship

2.1.1

Where notice has been given that livestock are to be loaded on to a ship, a M&I surveyor and a Official Veterinarian shall carry out an initial inspection of the ship, and may carry out such subsequent inspections as are considered necessary to ascertain that the fittings, equipment and carrying arrangements on the ship comply with the provisions of these requirements and are in a fit state for the proper carriage of the livestock.

2.1.2

A M&I surveyor making an inspection for the purpose of 2.1.1 shall be advised by a Official Veterinarian on all matters of animal health, welfare and husbandry.

2.1.3

When both the M&I surveyor and the Official Veterinarian are satisfied with their inspections of the ship, the M&I surveyor shall issue a permit to the master of the ship.

2.1.4.1

Where a M&I surveyor and an Official Veterinarian make an inspection of a ship under 2.1.1 and are of the opinion that the provisions of these requirements are not being complied with, either may order that:

  1. the loading of livestock shall not be commenced or continued until such time that compliance with the provisions of these requirements has been achieved; or
  2. spaces nominated shall not be used for the carriage of livestock until such time that compliance with the provisions of these requirements has been achieved in respect of those spaces.

2.1.4.2

A master of the ship who acts in contravention of an order made under 2.1.4.1 commits an offence under Maritime Rule Part 24C.

2.1.5

Where the loading of livestock is due to be completed at a port, the owner, master or agent of the ship shall notify the M&I surveyor not less than 6 hours prior to the expected time of completion of loading. Subject to 2.1.6 and 2.1.6.1, the master shall not take the ship to sea after completion of loading until the ship has been inspected by the M&I surveyor and the Official Veterinarian, and being satisfied that the livestock have been loaded in accordance with these requirements. The M&I surveyor will notify the master in writing that the livestock are satisfactorily loaded in accordance with the conditions of the permit.

2.1.6

An appeal against an order under 2.1.4.1 or a decision by a M&I surveyor not to give notification in accordance with 2.1.5 may be made to the Director of the Maritime Safety Authority.

2.1.6.1

Director of the Maritime Safety Authority in determining an appeal under 2.1.4.1 may revoke a M&I surveyor's order under 2.1.4.1 and may provide the notification prescribed by 2.1.5.

2.2 Protective Arrangements

2.2.1

A ship to be used for the carriage of livestock shall be provided with durable fittings that will protect the livestock from injury, avoidable suffering and exposure to weather and sea.

2.2.2

The livestock shall be presented for loading, segregated according to size, sex, age, breed or any other characteristic which will encourage adaptation and normal behaviour. Where there is a proposal for mixed stock loading specific provision should be made in the loading plan for segregation of ewes from rams.

2.2.3

All fittings, fixtures and objects on a ship that are likely to come into contact with livestock shall be so manufactured, assembled or positioned as not to cause injury to the livestock.

2.2.4

All measures taken in compliance with the loading of fodder shall be performed to the satisfaction of a M&I surveyor and the Official Veterinarian.

2.3 Ventilation

2.3.1

Livestock carried in an enclosed space on a ship shall be provided with mechanical ventilation of sufficient capacity to change the air of that space in its entire volume:

  1. where the minimum clear height of the space is 2.30 metres or more, not less than once every 3 minutes;
  2. where the minimum clear height of the space is 1.80 metres, not less than once every 2 minutes; or
  3. where the minimum clear height of the space is between 2.30 metres and 1.80 metres, at a rate proportional to those specified in 2.3.1 (a) and (b).

2.3.2

Airflow must be greater than 0.1 metre per second.

2.3.3

For the purposes of 2.3.1, the volume of an enclosed space includes all that space contained between the ship's side plating, bulkheads, tank top or decks enclosing the space, less the volume of any tanks or trunks that are airtight within the space, and no reduction in volume shall be made in respect of space occupied by livestock, pens or other livestock fittings.

2.3.4

Livestock carried in a space on a ship that is not enclosed shall be provided with mechanical ventilation where:

  1. the space, being a structure having an arrangement of pens on more than one deck level, has a breadth greater than 20 metres; or
  2. because of a partial enclosure of the space, the natural ventilation is restricted.

2.3.5

Mechanical ventilation complying with 2.3.4 shall be capable of providing 75 per cent of the capacity prescribed for 2.3.1(a), (b) or (c).

2.3.6

For the purpose of determining the capacity prescribed by 2.3.5 the volume of a space referred to in 2.3.4 includes all that space contained between the extremities of a pen structure including passageways on the outboard sides or ends of the structure, less the volume of any tanks or trunks that are airtight within the pen structure, and no deduction shall be made in respect of space occupied by livestock, pens or other livestock fittings.

2.3.7

Uniform and adequate air movement (as prescribed in 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 above) to all areas of the deck shall be maintained on a loaded ship. Any areas with less than adequate ventilation, highlighted as trouble spots on previous voyages, are to be light loaded. Areas with less than adequate ventilation are defined as areas in which more than 10% of the livestock are panting with open mouths at any one time on more than one day of the voyage; or where airflow is 0.1 metre per second or less.

2.3.8

The M&I surveyor or Official Veterinarian may require the mechanical ventilation to be tested prior to the loading of the ship to ensure that:

  1. the requirements of 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 2.3.3, 2.3.4, 2.3.5, 2.3.6, 2.3.7 as appropriate, are met; and
  2. the whole of each livestock space is efficiently ventilated.

2.3.9

Air intakes shall be so sited that air supplied to livestock spaces is as clean and fresh as practicable and exhaust outlets shall be sited as high as practicable and clear of accommodation structures.

2.3.10

Unless otherwise permitted by the authority assigning the load lines to a ship in accordance with the conditions of assignment of load line prescribed by the Load Line Convention, the height of coamings for air intakes and exhausts on the ship shall:

  1. in relation to an air intake or exhaust situated upon an exposed freeboard deck, raised quarter deck or exposed superstructure deck situated forward of a point located a quarter of the length of the ship abaft the forward perpendicular, be not less than 4.50 metres above that deck; and
  2. in relation to an air intake or exhaust situated upon an exposed superstructure deck situated abaft a point located a quarter of the length of the ship from the forward perpendicular, be not less than 2.30 metres above that deck.

2.3.11

A ship shall be provided with primary and secondary sources of power for the mechanical ventilation prescribed by 2.3.1 or 2.3.4, as appropriate.

2.3.12

The primary source of power required by 2.3.11 shall be sufficient to supply continuous power for all that part of a voyage during which livestock are on board the ship without interfering with the normal operation of the ship.

2.3.13

The secondary source of power required by 2.3.11 shall:

  1. be located in a space, each boundary of which is not contiguous with a boundary of any space containing the primary source of power;
  2. be capable of being readily started;
  3. be capable, for a continuous period of 3 days, of delivering power sufficient to comply with 2.3.1, 2.3.4 or 5.4.12(b); and
  4. in the event of fire in a space containing the primary source of power, remain capable of complying with (b) and (c).
     
    Note: A secondary source of power may be required to be test-run prior to the loading of livestock on each voyage of a ship and should be maintained in good order at all times.

2.3.14

Where mechanical ventilation is fitted, adequate spare parts shall be carried on a ship to enable the replacement of defective fans.

Note 1: "Adequate spare parts" should be interpreted as including for each type of fan:

  • one set of bearings;
  • one rotor or impeller; and
  • one complete motor.

Note 2: Where mechanical ventilation provides an air change in excess of that prescribed by this Part, fans providing that excess may be accepted in place of the spares required by 2.3.14, provided the distribution of air will remain efficient.

2.3.15

Adequate spare parts for the sources of power on a ship shall be carried on the ship.

Note: "Adequate spare parts" should be interpreted as including spare parts required for auxiliary electric generators as specified by the survey authority or other classification society by whom the ship is classed for survey purposes.

2.3.16

Environmental and livestock measurements from previous voyage veterinary reports shall also be taken into account when determining the adequacy of the ventilation system. Modifications to the ventilation system or loading density or other compensatory action may be required by the Manager, Marine Safety.

2.4 Drainage

2.4.1

Provision shall be made to effectively drain fluids from each pen in which livestock are to be carried on a ship, except that drainage is not required from upper tier livestock pens.

2.4.2

Drainage pipes or channels shall be fitted to a ship to carry the fluids drained from a pen, as far as is practicable, clear of other pens and shall lead to drainage tanks or wells or shall lead overboard.

Note: Drainage overboard must be arranged so that the discharge of fluids can be suspended when the ship is in port.

2.4.3

Pumps or eductors for drainage tanks or wells fitted to a ship shall be capable of handling semi-solid matter and shall evacuate the tanks or wells by lines other than the ship's bilge lines.

2.4.4

Essential drainage tanks, wells and the top of drainage pipes in a ship shall be accessible from outside the livestock pens for the purposes of inspection and cleaning.

2.4.5

A drainage channel and the top of a drainage pipe fitted to a ship shall be covered by a strainer plate if:

  1. it is located inside a pen and could, if uncovered, cause injury to an animal; or
  2. it is located in a passageway and could, if uncovered, cause injury to a person.

2.5 Fresh Water Services

2.5.1

Each part of a ship in which livestock are carried shall be provided with a fresh water service.

2.5.2

Where a fresh water service referred to in 2.5.1 is an automatic system, it shall be so constructed as to:

  1. minimise, by control of the level of water, any spillage from a receptacle; and
  2. prevent the return of water from a receptacle to the freshwater tank.

2.6 Means of Access for Livestock

2.6.1

The facilities for ship loading and unloading need to be well designed, constructed and maintained to allow the supervised, rapid and safe transfer of livestock.

2.6.2

The facilities referred to in 2.6.1 shall be so erected as to prevent any gap occurring between the ship and the means of access and shall be set at a gradient not exceeding 1:2.

2.6.3

The facilities referred to in 2.6.1 shall be fitted with:

  1. side panels free of protrusions and of sufficient strength and height to prevent escape of livestock;
  2. a walking surface of cleats suitable for livestock; and
  3. a closing arrangement at the point of entry to the ship.

2.6.4

Inspection facilities to the satisfaction of an Official Veterinarian shall be provided at or near the loading or unloading facilities referred to in 2.6.1.

2.6.5

Where it is necessary for persons to be on the facilities referred to in 2.6.1 during the movement of livestock, separate means of access shall be provided, with a passage of not less than 550 millimetre width that shall be:

  1. fenced to a height of not less than 1 metre with an intermediate horizontal rail approximately 550 millimetres above the walking surface; and
  2. fitted with treads at suitable stepping distances.

2.7 Patrols

The master shall operate a patrol system to ensure the safety of the ship and welfare of the livestock throughout the period during which they are on board, the scope and frequency of which shall be determined by him, taking into account the use of automatic surveillance devices and alarms.

2.8 Master's Report

Upon completion of the voyage the master of a ship shall make a report in writing substantially in accordance with Appendix 2 to the Director Maritime Safety Authority.

Part 3 - Pen requirements

3.1 Restrictions on Carriage of Livestock

3.1.1

Livestock may be carried in more than one tier on any one deck subject to the relevant provisions of 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4.

3.1.2

Livestock shall not be carried over a hatchway unless the hatchway is protected against consequent damage and the hatchway covers are secured against movement.

3.1.3

The livestock shall be contained in secure pens constructed in accordance with the provisions of these requirements.

3.2 Design of Pens and Passageways

3.2.1

Subject to 3.2.2, the construction of pens on a ship used for the carriage of livestock and of adjacent passageways shall comply with the details specified in Table 1.

3.2.2

In respect of the side of a pen in a structure above the weather deck of a ship, where that side forms part of the boundary of that structure but is not contiguous with a passageway:

  1. the maximum clear vertical space below the bottom edge of the lowest rail and the top of a deck boundary angle or fashion plate shall be 100 millimetres; and
  2. the maximum clear vertical space between rails shall be 200 millimetres except that the maximum clear vertical space between the uppermost rail and the next lower rail may be 250 millimetres.

3.2.3

The clear floor area within a pen referred to in Table 1 shall be the area of the pen exclusive of any receptacle or other object or structure occupying any part of the area of the pen.

3.3 Arrangement of Pens

3.3.1

A passageway shall be provided on at least one longitudinal side of each livestock pen in a ship.

3.3.2

The means of closing livestock access to a pen may be a gate or portable rails:

  1. capable of maintaining a continuity of strength and the alignment of the adjoining boundary; and
  2. capable of being secured against accidental lifting or removal.

3.3.3

A pen floor in a ship shall be so constructed as to be watertight within the pen boundaries and shall have a surface that provides a satisfactory non-slip foothold for the livestock.

Table 1: Design of pens and passageways

Detail of design Dimension
Maximum breadth between rails aligned fore and aft 4500 mm
Minimum breadth between rails aligned fore and aft 2000 mm
Maximum length between rails aligned athwartships Not more than twice the breadth between rails aligned fore and aft
Minimum length between rails aligned athwartships Not less than the breadth between between rails aligned fore and aft
Maximum clear floor area within pen 40.5 square metres
Minimum clear height within pen 1400 mm
Minimum height of top edge of uppermost rail above pen floor, except that the height of that rail may be decreased where the height above the rail does not exceed 300 mm 900 mm
Maximum clear vertical space between rails 210mm
Maximum clear vertical space below bottom edge of lowest rail of pen installed at deck level 160 mm
Maximum clear vertical space below bottom edge of pen not installed at deck level except where a vertical plate or board is fitted in accordance with 3.2.5 50 mm
Minimum width of adjacent passageway clear of receptacles and any other obstruction 550 mm

Note: Existing ships will be required to comply with these measurements within 2 years of publication of these requirements.

Part 4 - Inspection and acceptance of ship

4.1 Additional Requirements

4.1.1

Where it appears to the Director Maritime Safety Authority or the Chief Veterinary Officer, on the report of a M&I surveyor or an Official Veterinarian, that these requirements are insufficient to provide for the safety of persons or for the proper carriage of livestock on the ship, the Director Maritime Safety Authority may direct the performance by the master of such additional precautions or conditions of carriage as is considered necessary.

4.1.2

Livestock shall not be loaded or carried on a ship unless a master has complied with a direction given to him under 4.1.1

4.2 Modification of Provisions

Where it appears to the Director Maritime Safety Authority on the report of a M&I surveyor or Official Veterinarian, that any of the provisions of these requirements may be modified in respect of a ship, without danger to persons or detriment to the proper carriage of livestock, the Director Maritime Safety Authority may permit the modification of those provisions to such extent and subject to such conditions as the circumstances of the case warrant.

4.3 Equivalence

Where a provision of these requirements requires a particular fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, to be fitted or carried in a ship or a particular provision to be made in a ship, the Director Maritime Safety Authority may allow, subject to such conditions as may be determined, any other fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, to be fitted or carried, or any other provision to be made, if satisfied that the other fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, or provision, is at least as effective as that required by that provision of these requirements.

4.4 Withdrawal of Acceptance

Where the Director Maritime Safety Authority considers that any condition attached to the acceptance of any article, arrangement, system or use of livestock capacity plan that has been granted under these requirements has not been complied with or that an article, agreement, system, or use has not proved satisfactory in service, the Director Maritime Safety Authority may, in addition to any other action, withdraw the approval of the article, arrangement, system or use of livestock capacity plan and the master, owner or agent shall upon notice thereof surrender any document of the acceptance of the livestock capacity plan.

Part 5 - Requirements for the loading and husbandry of the livestock

5.1 Livestock Capacity Plan

5.1.1

A ship that is permanently equipped for the carriage of livestock shall not take aboard livestock, or carry livestock from, a port in New Zealand unless there is in force in respect of the ship a livestock capacity plan which has been modified for New Zealand conditions if necessary, and has been approved by a recognised authority.

5.1.2

A livestock capacity plan shall be substantially in accordance with that required by the Australian Marine Order Part 43.

5.1.3

The master of a ship in respect of which there is in force an accepted livestock capacity plan shall, on the request of a M&I surveyor, produce the plan and supporting information and drawings for inspection.

5.1.4

When livestock are on board a ship in respect of which there is in force an accepted livestock capacity plan, the livestock fittings, livestock equipment and carrying arrangements shown in the plan shall be in position and in good order and the livestock shall be contained and carried in compliance with the plan, together with any additional requirements which may be imposed by the M&I surveyor and/or the Official Veterinarian prior to loading.

5.2 Fitness of Livestock for Carriage by Sea

5.2.1

The Official Veterinarian will assess the fitness of livestock for carriage by sea. Livestock shall not be loaded on to a ship without approval of the Official Veterinarian.

5.3 Care of Livestock on Board

5.3.1

The Chief Officer is responsible for the provision of satisfactory tending, feeding and watering of livestock at all times during the ship's voyage. For that purpose there shall be on board:

  1. a competent stockman (who shall be familiar with Australasian livestock and have practical farm and feedlot experience); and
  2. such additional personnel as are necessary.

The shipping company is to provide a basic course in livestock handling and husbandry prior to the engagement of any crew who will be required to tend to livestock on the ship. People who are experienced in handling livestock may be exempt from the course.

5.3.2

An Official Veterinarian shall accompany the shipment.

5.4 Fodder and Water

5.4.1

For all livestock to be carried in a ship, there shall be provided fodder and water of a quality considered suitable for the purpose by the Official Veterinarian at the port where the livestock are loaded, sufficient, having regard to 5.4.2 and 5.4.3:

  1. for the expected period of the voyage; and
  2. to provide a reserve of a further 25 per cent or 4 days requirements, whichever is the less;
  3. at least an additional 1 days' requirements for discharge.

5.4.2

In assessing the quantity of water to be provided in accordance with 5.4.1, allowance may be made for:

  1. the anticipated quantity of potable water to be generated by the ship's equipment during the voyage, if evidence is produced by the master to the satisfaction of a M&I surveyor attesting to the capacity and efficiency of the water-generating equipment; and
  2. the taking on board of potable water at an intermediate port nominated to a M&I surveyor prior to the loading of livestock, in which case the expected period of the voyage for the purposes of 5.4.1 shall extend from the departure of the ship from the port of loading to its final destination but including any intermediate port.

Note: Evidence that adequate potable water in accordance with 5.4.1 was taken on at the intermediate port may be required prior to a ship loading for a subsequent voyage from New Zealand.

5.4.3.1

In the case of sheep, fodder and water shall, unless otherwise determined by a Official Veterinarian, be supplied daily whilst on a ship, in the quantities specified by Table 2.

Table 2: Amounts of fodder and water per head of sheep per day

Fodder Water
3 per cent of live body weight of good quality pellets 4 litres, except if the maximum ambient temperature exceeds 35°C, the minimum daily water requirement for sheep shall be 6 litres

5.4.3.2

Fodder and water must be regularly provided in a manner so to avoid pushing and plunging at the feed and water troughs that may lead to smothering of sheep. Water must be available for a minimum period of 4 hours twice a day.

5.4.3.3

Fodder in pelletised or other concentrated form specified by Table 2 must contain:

  1. dry matter greater than 85%
  2. organic matter greater than 90% of dry matter
  3. crude protein greater than 10% of dry matter
  4. crude fibre greater than 14% or a minimum modified acid detergent fibre (MADF) content of 15% of dry matter (the minimum fibre particle length should be about 0.5 cm)
  5. metabolisable energy greater than 9 MJ/kg of dry matter
  6. mineral ash at 8-10% of dry matter
  7. sodium at 0.1-0.2% of dry matter
  8. a grain content of not more than 40%
  9. the macro and micro element standard should be no less than recommended by the New Zealand Pastoral Association.
  10. dry matter greater than 85%.

5.4.4

Each pen on a ship shall be provided with receptacles for feeding and watering of the livestock and, except where the fodder or water is provided by an automatic system, the receptacles shall be capable of containing at least 33 per cent of the daily allowance of fodder and water for the number of animals contained in the pen. Feeding off the floor of a pen is not permitted.

5.4.5

Receptacles provided in accordance with 5.4.4 shall be:

  1. suitable for the class of livestock loaded;
  2. readily accessible to the livestock;
  3. capable of being serviced from outside the pen;
  4. so installed as to not impede ventilation;
  5. so constructed and positioned that fodder dust shall not be disturbed by the flow of ventilation; and
  6. so constructed and positioned that the fodder does not get contaminated by manure.

Note 1: Feed trough space should be a minimum of 5 cm/head of sheep.

Note 2: The top of a trough used as a water or fodder receptacle should be approximately 360 millimetres above the pen floor.

Note 3: All existing ships must progressively comply with the positioning of the fodder and water receptacles required by 5.4.5.

  • 25% conversion one year after the publication of these requirements;
  • 50% conversion two years after the publication of these requirements;
  • 75% conversion three years after the publication of these requirements;
  • 100% conversion four years after the publication of these requirements.

5.4.6

Pens to be used for the carriage of livestock shall, where practicable, be provided with water and fodder in accordance with these requirements before livestock are loaded on a ship. Livestock must be provided with fodder and water not later than 12 hours after leaving the feedlot.

5.4.7

For all new conversions fodder shall be carried in not less than two separate spaces on the ship.

Note: Pelletised food is, depending on moisture content, liable to spontaneous combustion. Guidelines cannot be given as to the level of moisture that causes this reaction in different types of pellets. Masters and others concerned are advised to ensure that the moisture content of pellets is within the product specification and to avoid loading pellets in wet weather.

Fires within pellet storage silos aboard livestock carriers present great fire fighting difficulties, often requiring specialised equipment and assistance to extinguish. Potentially dangerous explosions have been reported to occur whilst attempting to combat such fires.

5.4.8

Fodder in storage or in feeding receptacles shall be kept in a dry state, protected from the weather and sea.

5.4.9

Fodder may be stored in an enclosed livestock space in a ship if it does not interfere with the ventilation, lighting, drainage, firefighting and passageway provisions of these requirements.

5.4.10

A tank on a ship used for the storage of drinking water for livestock shall be maintained in good condition to ensure that the water is not contaminated.

5.4.11

Pumps shall be provided on a ship, capable of continuously supplying fresh water to livestock.

5.4.12

Where all the pumps required by 5.4.11 are situated in a space occupied by the primary source of power in a ship or are powered by the primary source of power, either:

  1. a portable pump; or
  2. a fixed pump, located outside the space occupied by the primary source of power and powered by the secondary source of power prescribed by 2.3.13, shall be provided and shall be capable of being used with not less than one fresh water tank on the ship.

5.5 Provision of a Humane Killing Device and Veterinary Equipment

5.5.1

Two humane killing devices shall be provided which are approved by the Chief Veterinary Officer and are proven to be in good working order.

5.5.2

The ship's competent stockman referred to in 5.3.1(a), shall be proficient in the use of the humane killing devices provided in accordance with 5.5.1.

5.5.3

Veterinary equipment, including medicines, instruments and stores, approved by a Official Veterinarian as suitable for the number of livestock carried, shall be provided.

5.6 Number of Livestock that may be Carried

5.6.1

5.6.1.1

The maximum number of livestock that may be carried on a ship or a part of a ship shall be the number obtained by dividing the permissible pen area available in square metres, as modified by sections 5.6.1.2 and 5.6.1.3 by the minimum permissible floor area per animal specified in Table 3. The maximum number of livestock to be carried on each ship are determined in the conditions in Appendix 3 of this standard.

5.6.1.2

Spare pen space equivalent to 0.25 percent of the available pen space must be made available on each deck for use as a hospital.

5.6.1.3

Where it is apparent on reports of previous voyages that insufficient space has been allowed to ensure the welfare of the livestock, additional space per animal shall be provided for at the direction of the Chief Veterinary Officer. Where additional requirements have been made, there will be sufficient notice given in writing.

5.6.1.4

No sheep having a wool length of more than 25 millimetres shall be loaded without the permission of an Official Veterinarian. Where such permission has been given the minimum floor area per livestock shall be determined by that officer and he shall advise the M&I surveyor.

Table 3: Minimum permissible floor area per sheep

New Zealand Standard Space Guide for Sheep
Weight Square Metres per Sheep   Weight Square Metres per Sheep
Average weight of sheep (kg) Minimum permissible floor area per sheep having wool length not more than 25 mm   Average weight of sheep (kg) Minimum permissible floor area per sheep having wool length not more than 25 mm
20 or less 0.2664   51 0.3524
21 0.2692   52 0.3552
22 0.2720   53 0.3580
23 0.2747   54 0.3608
24 0.2775   55 0.3635
25 0.2803   56 0.3663
26 0.2831   57 0.3691
27 0.2858   58 0.3719
28 0.2886   59 0.3746
29 0.2914   60 0.3774
30 0.2941   61 0.3830
31 0.2969   62 0.3885
32 0.2997   63 0.3941
33 0.3025   64 0.3996
34 0.3053   65 0.4052
35 0.3080   66 0.4107
36 0.3108   67 0.4163
37 0.3136   68 0.4218
38 0.3164   69 0.4274
39 0.3191   70 0.4329
40 0.3219   71 0.4385
41 0.3247   72 0.4440
42 0.3275   73 0.4496
43 0.3302   74 0.4551
44 0.3330   75 0.4607
45 0.3358   76 0.4662
46 0.3386   77 0.4718
47 0.3413   78 0.4773
48 0.3441   79 0.4829
49 0.3469   80 or more 0.4884
50 0.3497      

5.6.1.5

The average weight of livestock to be carried on a ship shall be determined in a manner acceptable to a Official Veterinarian and a record of the aggregating totals of the weight and number of livestock shall be available to the M&I surveyor and the Official Veterinarian before the loading of the ship.

5.6.1.6

The total weight and number of livestock permitted to be carried according to these requirements shall not be exceeded.

5.6.2

Distribution of livestock in a ship shall be:

  1. such that the floor area per head is not less than the minimum permissible under Table 3, 5.6.1.2 or under 5.6.1.3 as the case requires;
  2. the livestock shall be grouped according to weight or class, such that the floor area per head is not less than the minimum permissible in respect of the average weight for each group, determined under Table 3 or 5.6.1.2.

5.6.3

Where the average weight of livestock determined under 5.6.1.5 differs from the estimated average weight notified in accordance with 1.4.2, the number of livestock permitted to be loaded on to the ship shall be in accordance with the average weight of the livestock as determined under 5.6.1.5.

5.7 Disposal of Dead Livestock

5.7.1

No carcass may be jettisoned unless the animal has been confirmed as dead.

5.7.2

The carcass of any dead animal on a ship shall not be disposed of at sea within 12 nautical miles from the coastline of New Zealand or any other country.

5.7.3

The carcass of any dead animal on a ship shall not be disposed of at sea between 12 and 100 nautical miles of any land unless the carcass has been passed through a comminuter or grinder or has been slit to the extent that the thoracic and abdominal cavities are opened.

5.8 Livestock Mortality

5.8.1

Where the mortality of sheep carried on a ship exceeds 1.5 per cent during the voyage and 2 per cent during the voyage plus discharge, the master shall forthwith, after unloading at the port of discharge, furnish a report by the most expeditious means of communication available, to the Director, Maritime Safety Authority notifying:

  1. the mortality rate;
  2. factors that may have caused deaths in the sheep.

5.8.2

Where the voyage plus discharge mortality of sheep carried on a ship exceeds 2 per cent or exceeds a level that is considered unacceptable in the circumstances, the ship shall not commence a further voyage from New Zealand carrying sheep until an investigation into the causes of death has been jointly carried out by the Maritime Safety Authority and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

5.8.3

For the purposes of 5.8.1 and 5.8.2, the voyage mortality rate shall be determined by dividing the number of livestock deaths occurring in the period between departure of the ship from the first port of loading until the arrival at the port of discharge by the total number of livestock loaded and multiplying the resultant figure by 100. The discharge mortality shall be determined by dividing the number of livestock deaths occurring in the period between arrival at port of discharge until the last livestock have been discharged by the total number of livestock loaded and multiplying the resultant figure by 100.

5.8.4

Livestock shall not be loaded on a ship subject to an investigation under 5.8.2 until:

  1. the Director, Maritime Safety Authority has approved the ship for loading; or
  2. any conditions required by the Director, Maritime Safety Authority have been complied with.

Appendix 1 - Livestock Capacity Plan

1 - General Description of Ship

Name of ship:

Port of registry:
or Home Port Official number:

Position of livestock:

  • on exposed deck
  • in enclosed spaces

Livestock carried

  • species:
  • total pen area:

Note:
Where appropriate indicate:

  1. space available for sheep only;
  2. space available for cattle only;
  3. space available for each species of livestock for mixed shipment.

Scale of minimum floor area for the species of livestock carried:

2 - General Description of Pen Construction

Details appear on drawing(s) No:

Deck covering:

Tier construction:

General description of pens:

3 - Ventilation

Details appear on drawing(s) No:

FANS

Position Motor type and size Air quantity delivered m3 Reversible or single direction
       

Description of initial testing procedure to show compliance with provisions of 10:

Spare components:

Failure alarms (description and location):

4 - Ship's Generating Capacity

Generators available for ship's auxiliary and domestic services only:

Number Type kW Consumption per day (full load)
       

Generators available for ship's auxiliary and domestic services and livestock:

Number Type kW Consumption per day (full load)
       

Generators available for livestock services only:

Number Type kW Consumption per day (full load)
       

Secondary source of power:

Number Type kW Consumption per day (full load)
       

Total capacity of fuel tanks available for generators (excluding secondary source of power):

Normal maximum load, auxiliary and domestic services:

  1. at sea:
  2. in port:

Normal load, livestock services, continuous running:

  1. ventilation:
  2. lighting:
  3. other:

Spares for generators:

Spares for secondary source of power:

5 - Drainage

Details appear on drawing(s) No:

General description:

Position and capacity of drain wells:

Types of pumps:

Situation of pumps:

Type of alarm system:

Sewerage retention facilities:

6 - Fire Fighting Appliances (Livestock spaces only)

Details appear on drawing(s) No:

Type of hydrants and hoses:

Type of fire extinguishers:

Type of fixed-fire fighting installation:

  • silos:
  • enclosed spaces:

7 - Fodder

Details appear on drawing(s) No:

Fodder type:

Silo capacity:
- other stowage:

Distribution arrangements from stowage to pens:

Feeding arrangements at pens:

Alternative arrangement in event of mechanical failure:

8 - Water

Details appear on drawing(s) No:

Tank capacities:

Total:

Fresh water generation

  • type:
  • production per day:

Fresh water pumps

  • type:
  • capacity:

Description of automatic system:

Description of additional portable or fixed pump:

  • type:
  • capacity:

9 - Summary of Equipment

Compartment or zone Number of extinguishers Date of test Fire hydrants Fire hoses Freshwater hydrants Freshwater hoses
             

10 - Pen Area

Details appear on drawing(s) No:

Livestock space or deck:

Tiers Fixed or portable:

Total volume of space:

Number of air changes:

Species of livestock:

Pen No. Area Pen No. Area Pen No. Area
           

Total area:
(One sheet for each livestock space)

11 - Lighning

Type of lighting in passageways:

Level of illumination:

Type of emergency lighting:

Level of illumination:

Type of lighting in pens:

Level of illumination at floor legal (if fixed):

Note: 'Level of illumination' means illumination in the horizontal plane measured at a height of one metre above the walking surface. Minimum and maximum levels are to be included.

12 - List of Supporting Information and Drawings

Title Plan No Date
     

Appendix 2 - Carriage of Livestock - Master's Report

Name of ship:

Port of registry:
or Home Port Official number:

Name and address of shipowner:

Name and address of livestock exporter/shipper:

Livestock Date(s) of loading port(s) commencement:

Date(s) of completion:

Livestock Date(s) of discharging port(s) commencement:

Date(s) of completion:

Number and species of livestock loaded

  • Open spaces:
  • Enclosed spaces:

Amount of feed and water loaded

  • Feed:
  • Water:

Daily amount of water produced on board:

General report of voyage:

Weather conditions:

Breakdowns:

Conditions of livestock:

Person in charge of livestock: Master:
   
Name Name
   
Qualifications Qualifications
   
Signed Signed
   
Date Date

Note: This report is to be completed and returned to the Chief M&I surveyor through the Assistant Director of the Regional Office of the Department, responsible for the last port of loading.

Date of departure:

Day Daily mortality Environment (Readings at noon) General remarks
  Open spaces Enclosed spaces Total Temperature Humidity Wind speed Wind direction Ship's course e.g Medication, condition of fodder, high ammonia levels
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
                 
Total        

Total Mortality

  • During loading:
  • During voyage:
  • During discharge:
  • Mortality percentage:

Appendix 3 - Conditions Common to all Ships

1) A Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) recognised veterinary officer is to accompany the sheep to observe, monitor and then report to the CVO within 5 working days of the completion of the ship's discharge on the welfare of the sheep throughout the voyage and the full period of discharge;

2) All factors influencing the welfare of the sheep in the consignment are to be monitored and comply with the codes of practice relating to the shipment of sheep;

3) A competent stockman is to accompany the shipment to assist with the welfare management of the sheep;

4) The ship is to load feed so that the sheep are fed at least 3% of their body weight (and, if loaded, young sheep are fed at 4% of their body weight) for each day of the expected duration of the voyage, from the time they are loaded until the time they are discharged, plus at least four days;

Conditions specific to each ship:

Please note that change to the conditions for each of the following ships can occur at any time depending on the recommendations of the voyage veterinarian's report.

  • Al Gasseem
  • Mawashi Al Tabuk
  • Al Sades
  • Al Kuwait
  • Corriedale Express
  • El Corderro
  • Al Yasrah
  • Fernanda F
  • Al Qurain
  • Cormo Express

Mawashi Al Gasseem

1. A Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) recognised veterinary officer is to accompany the sheep to observe, monitor and then report to the CVO within 5 working days of the completion of the ship's discharge on the welfare of the sheep throughout the voyage and the full period of discharge;

2. All factors influencing the welfare of the sheep in the consignment are to be monitored, and comply with the codes of practice relating to the shipment of sheep;

3. A competent stockman is to accompany the shipment to assist with the welfare management of the sheep;

4. The ship is to be loaded to the New Zealand standard as advised by MAF with sheep no less than 40 kilograms live weight;

5. The ship is to load feed so that the sheep are fed at 3% of their body weight daily for the expected duration of the voyage, from the time they are loaded until the time they are discharged, plus at least four days; and during the feeding times, a full complement of sheep house staff must be made available to ensure that feeding proceeds efficiently and smoothly;

6. The feed management must include the use of calibration techniques to assist the assessment of fodder in the silos and the troughs.

7. All water troughs must be operational at the time of loading and sufficient spare parts must be carried to ensure that water troughs can be serviced during the voyage.

8. All inter-pen gates are to be securely fastened, either open or shut.

Mawashi Al Tabuk

1. A Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) recognised veterinary officer is to accompany the sheep to observe, monitor and then report to the CVO within 5 working days of the completion of the ship's discharge, on the welfare of the sheep throughout the voyage and the full period of discharge. An experienced veterinarian is required to travel with this shipment;

2. All factors influencing the welfare of the sheep in the consignment are to be monitored and must comply with the codes of practice relating to the shipment of sheep;

3. A competent stockman and an experienced veterinarian are to accompany the shipment to assist with the welfare management of the sheep;

4. The ship is to be loaded with no more than 60,000 sheep to the New Zealand standard on the open decks and to New Zealand standard less 5% on the enclosed decks, except for decks 4 and 5 which are to be light loaded by 10%.

5. Water troughs to be used during the voyage must be inspected to ensure that they are functional and filled at the commencement of loading;

6. The ship is to load at least ( no.) tonnes of feed so that the sheep can be fed at least 3% of their body weight (and, if loaded, young sheep are fed at least 4% of their body weight) for each day of the expected duration of the voyage, from the time they are loaded until the time they are discharged, plus at least five days;

Al Sades

1) The certifying veterinarian must be satisfied that the welfare of the sheep to be exported meets the requirements of the relevant codes before the commencement of loading and immediately prior to the departure of the ship.

2) A Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) recognised veterinary officer is to accompany the sheep to observe, monitor and then report to the CVO within 5 working days of the completion of the ship's discharge on the welfare of the sheep throughout the voyage and the full period of discharge;

3) All factors influencing the welfare of the sheep in the consignment are to be monitored and comply with the codes of practice relating to the shipment of sheep;

4) A competent stockperson is to accompany the shipment to assist with the welfare management of the sheep;

5) The ship is to load feed so that the sheep are fed at 3% of their body weight for each day of the expected duration of the voyage, from the time they are loaded until the time they are discharged, plus at least four days;

6) The ship be loaded to the New Zealand standard on open decks and to the New Zealand standard less 5% on enclosed decks; 4 tooth and 6 tooth sheep are loaded on the lower within hull decks; Preference is to be given to loading the youngest sheep on the upper open decks with the exception of the top tier of the top deck;

7) Where troughs are moveable, they be lowered to a maximum height of 350 mm-440 mm to allow young sheep to feed whilst still allowing sufficient headroom for older sheep to feed with ease. The progress of the programme to reduce the height of all water and fodder troughs to a maximum height of 440 mm whilst still permitting larger sheep sufficient headroom to feed is to be reported to the MAF veterinary inspection team before loading.

8) The voyage veterinarian is to monitor and report to the CVO on the supply of water to water troughs, especially on deck 1.

Al Kuwait

1) The certifying veterinarian must be satisfied that the welfare of the sheep, to be exported, meets the requirements of the relevant codes, before the commencement of loading and immediately prior to the departure of the ship;

2) A Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) recognised veterinary officer is to accompany the sheep to observe, monitor and then report to the CVO within 5 working days of the completion of the ship's discharge, on the welfare of the sheep throughout the voyage and the full period of discharge;

3) All factors influencing the welfare of the sheep in the consignment are to be monitored and comply with the codes of practice relating to the shipment of sheep;

4) A competent stockperson is to accompany the shipment to assist with the welfare management of the sheep;

5) The ship is to load feed so that the sheep are fed at 3% of their body weight for each day of the expected duration of the voyage, from the time they are loaded until the time they are discharged, plus at least four days;

6) The ship be loaded to the New Zealand standard as advised by MAF;

7) The Al Kuwait is to be light loaded by 10%;

8) Where troughs are moveable, they must be lowered to a maximum height of 440 mm to allow young sheep to feed whilst still allowing sufficient headroom for older sheep to feed with ease;

Corriedale Express (as at November 1998)

1) The certifying veterinarian must be satisfied that the welfare of the sheep to be exported meets the requirements of the relevant codes before the commencement of loading and immediately prior to the departure of the ship.

2) A Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) recognised veterinary officer is to accompany the sheep to observe, monitor and then report to the CVO within 5 working days of the completion of the ship's discharge on the welfare of the sheep throughout the voyage and the full period of discharge;

3) All factors influencing the welfare of the sheep in the consignment are to be monitored and comply with the codes of practice relating to the shipment of live sheep;

4) A competent stock person is to accompany the shipment to assist with the welfare management of the sheep;

5) The ship is to load feed so that the sheep are fed at 3.3% of their body weight for each day of the expected duration of the voyage, from the time they are loaded until the time they are discharged, plus at least four days;

6) If additional fodder in bags is to be loaded, then only fodder in small bags may be loaded in the aft hold; there is no restriction on bag size for the fore deck.

7) The fodder supplied shall have no salt added to it during manufacture.

8) The ship must to load water sufficient to provide at least 4 litres per sheep per day except for ten (10) days when provision must be made for at least 6 litres per sheep per day.

9) The ship be light loaded by a total of 5% of the New Zealand Standard on open decks and light loaded by a total of 25% of the New Zealand Standard on enclosed decks; except for decks 3 and 4 which are to be further light loaded by a 5% to a total of 30% light loading of the New Zealand Standard;

10) Where troughs are moveable, they be lowered to a maximum height of 350 mm-440 mm to allow young sheep to feed whilst still allowing sufficient headroom for older sheep to feed with ease.

11) As much as is reasonably possible, the ventilation fans should operate on "input" to ensure that a continual maximum supply of fresh air is provided to the sheep.

12) When the alleyways are cleaned the sweepings must not be disposed of by dumping into pens.

13) The pen decks may not be washed clean unless it is with the full agreement of the voyage veterinarian.

El Cordero

1) The certifying veterinarian must be satisfied that the welfare of the sheep to be exported meets the requirements of the relevant codes before the commencement of loading and immediately prior to the departure of the ship;

2) A Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) recognised veterinary officer is to accompany the sheep to observe, monitor and then report to the CVO within 5 working days of the completion of the ship's discharge on the welfare of the sheep throughout the voyage and the full period of discharge;

3) All factors influencing the welfare of the sheep and cattle in the consignment are to be monitored and comply with the codes of practice relating to the shipment of sheep and good welfare practices for the transport of cattle by sea;

4) A competent stockperson is to accompany the shipment to assist with the welfare management of the sheep and cattle;

5) The ship is to load feed so that the sheep are fed at least 3% of their body weight for each day of the expected duration of the voyage, and the breeding cattle are fed at least 2% of their body weight for each day of the expected duration of the voyage, from the time they are loaded until the time that discharge is completed, plus at least five days;

6) The ship must be loaded to the New Zealand standards and as advised by MAF at the time of the pre loading inspection, light loading by at least 5% on open decks and at least 10% on closed decks;

7) The cargo plan number 25 and 26 bottom tier pens on Main Deck are not to loaded with sheep or cattle until water flooding can be prevented.

8) Removable wind protection must be provided along the front of all pens and at least halfway along the side of the forward pens on the outside of the ship on deck 4 and 5;

9) Where troughs are moveable, they must be lowered to a maximum height of 440 mm to allow young sheep to feed whilst still allowing sufficient headroom for older sheep to feed with ease;

Cormo Express

1) A Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) recognised veterinary officer is to accompany the sheep to observe, monitor and then report to the CVO within 5 working days of the completion of the ship's discharge on the welfare of the sheep throughout the voyage and the full period of discharge;

2) All factors influencing the welfare of the sheep in the consignment are to be monitored and comply with the codes of practice relating to the shipment of sheep;

3) A competent stockman is to accompany the shipment to assist with the welfare management of the sheep;

4) The ship is to load feed so that the sheep are fed at 3% of their body weight (and, if loaded, young sheep are fed at 4% of their body weight) for each day of the expected duration of the voyage, from the time they are loaded until the time they are discharged, plus at least four days;

5) The ship is to be light loaded to at least 15% of the New Zealand as advised by MAF;

6) No young sheep* are to be carried.

* a young sheep (in the context of the Cormo Express) is defined as a sheep born the previous year to go before 1 August of the following year.

Page last updated: 30 April 2008