Risk Analysis

An analysis of risk is the first stage in the development of import health standard(s) that set out the requirements to be met before risk goods may be imported and given biosecurity clearance in New Zealand.

It involves the identification of pests and diseases that might be associated with a good, the likelihood of entry and establishment in New Zealand and the potential impacts on our economy, environment and human health.

Risk analysis is still evolving, but it is now an accepted basis under the World Trade Organisation Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement (WTO SPS Agreement) for establishing international trading standards and for trade negotiations involving dispute, where safety aspects of animal and plant products fare concerned.

New Zealand is one of the countries leading the way in establishing risk analysis procedures internationally.

View the Biosecurity New Zealand risk analysis procedures Link to PDF document (791 KB) for the development of import health standards for inanimate, animal and plant products.

View amendments to the risk analysis procedures - for interested stakeholders - Revisions to Risk Analysis Procedures - 10 October 2007 Link to PDF document (25 KB)

Risk analyses which are currently out for public consultation are available on MPI's consultation web page.

Vessel Biofouling
Risk Analysis (February 2011) Link to PDF document (1031 KB)
Aquatic animals Freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) from Hawaii
Risk Analysis (March 2006): An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of live freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) into New Zealand.
Review of Submissions (August 2006) Link to PDF document (525 KB)
Ornamental Fish
Risk Analysis (November 2005) Link to PDF document (843 KB)
Review of Submissions and Supplementary Risk Analysis (June 2009) Link to PDF document (822 KB)
Review of Submissions on Supplementary Risk Analysis (June 2010) Link to PDF document (1374 KB)
Yellowtail kingfish from South Australia
Risk Analysis (February 2003) Link to PDF document (170 KB): An analysis of the risks associated with the importation of cultured juvenile (1 - 3g) kingfish (Seriola lalandi) from Spencer Gulf Aquaculture hatchery, Port Augusta, South Australia, to a proposed aquaculture facility in Nelson, New Zealand.
Review of Submissions (September 2004) Link to PDF document (1782 KB)
Avian Avian paramyxovirus type 1 in hens' hatching eggs
Risk Analysis (March 2001): Link to PDF document (96 KB) An analysis of the risk posed by exotic strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (causative agent of Newcastle disease) in imported hatching eggs of hens (Gallus gallus).
Review of Submissions (December 2001) Link to PDF document (1199 KB)
Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) from the United Kingdom
Draft Risk Analysis (December 2008) Link to PDF document (992 KB): This analysis examines the disease risks associated with imports of live budgerigars from the United Kingdom.
Review of Submissions (May 2009) Link to PDF document (298 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (May 2009) Link to PDF document (569 KB)
Hatching eggs from chickens from the European Union, Canada, the United States of America, and Australia
Draft Risk Analysis (May 2008) Link to PDF document (216 KB)
Review of Submissions (January 2009) Link to PDF document (728 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (January 2009) Link to PDF document (628 KB)

Hatching eggs of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus and Cairina moschata) from the European Union, Canada, the United States of America, and Australia
Import Risk Analysis (May 2012) Link to PDF document (628 KB) This import risk analysis supplements MPI’s Import Risk Analysis: Hatching eggs from chickens (Gallus gallus) from the European Union, Canada, the United States of America, and Australia, dated 28 January 2009. 

Passerine hatching eggs from the European Union
Risk Analysis (February 2006): Link to PDF document (1071 KB) This risk analysis examines the biosecurity risks posed by the importation of hatching eggs of birds in the taxonomic order Passeriformes from the European Union into New Zealand.
MAF received only one submission on this risk analysis. As that submission was in agreement with the risk management measures recommended in the risk analysis, no review of submissions was prepared.
Pigeons (Columba livia) from Australia
Draft Risk Analysis (May 2009) Link to PDF document (529 KB)
Review of Submissions (August 2009) Link to PDF document (373 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (August 2009) Link to PDF document (808 KB)
Psittaciformes
A draft import risk analysis examining the biosecurity risks posed by infectious or parasitic agents when importing live psittacine birds from any country has been completed (December 2012) and is available on request.
After the Animal Imports team of MPI has analysed the options available and proposed draft measures for the effective management of identified risks, these will be presented in a draft IHS which is released together with the draft import risk analysis and a risk management proposal summarising the options analysis and the rationale for the proposed measures. This package of documents will be released for a six-week period of stakeholder consultation and stakeholder submissions in relation to these documents will be reviewed before a final IHS is issued.
Psittacine hatching eggs
Draft Risk Analysis (August 2009) Link to PDF document (492 KB)
Review of Submissions (May 2010) Link to PDF document (416 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (May 2010) Link to PDF document (566 KB)
Turkey rhinotracheitis virus in turkey hatching eggs from the United Kingdom sourced from TRT-vaccinated flocks
Risk Analysis (February 2004) Link to PDF document (1009 KB) This document is an analysis of the risk of introducing turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) virus into New Zealand from the United Kingdom in imported turkey hatching eggs obtained from parent stock vaccinated against that disease.
Bees & Bee Products Honey Bee Genetic Material
Risk Analysis (June 2003): Link to PDF document (547 KB) An analysis of the risks associated with importing honey bee (Apis mellifera) genetic material – queens, queen cells, eggs and semen. Primarily to find acceptable conditions under which genes for varroa tolerance can be introduced into New Zealand.
Review of Submissions (August 2003) Link to PDF document (981 KB)
Honey Bee Hive Products And Used Beekeeping Equipment
Risk Analysis (July 2002) Link to PDF document (183 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by imported bee products and used beekeeping equipment
Review of Submissions (June 2003) Link to PDF document (618 KB)
Honey Bee Products
Risk Analysis (December 2004) Link to PDF document (2003 KB): A re-written risk analysis on honey bee hive products, excluding used beekeeping equipment. This followed concerns raised in submissions on the initial risk analysis of July 2002. The updated analysis is based on the original but is brought into line with current procedures and processes.
Review of Submissions (November 2005) Link to PDF document (4723 KB)
Domestic Mammals Babesia gibsoni in Dogs and Dog Semen
Risk Analysis (February 2003): Link to PDF document (114 KB) A qualitative analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by Babesia gibsoni in dogs and their semen imported into New Zealand. B. gibsoni is a tick-transmitted blood borne parasite of wild and domestic dogs.
Review of Submissions (October 2003) Link to PDF document (1299 KB)
Cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis familiaris) and canine semen from all countries
Draft Risk Analysis (June 2009) Link to PDF document (1404 KB)
Review of Submissions (November 2009) Link to PDF document (685 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (November 2009) Link to PDF document (1345 KB)
Edible Products Australian salmonids
Supplementary Risk Analysis (September 1999) Link to PDF document (77 KB): Analysis of importing eviscerated salmonids from Australia, produced and processed under the already approved regulatory systems which currently provide for market access into New Zealand for headed, gilled and gutted salmonids.
Review of Submissions (March 2000) Link to PDF document (284 KB)
Belovo Egg Powders
Risk Analysis (April 2003) Link to PDF document (94 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by three egg powders manufactured by a specific European firm working according to GMP rules on hygiene and health problems affecting the production and the placing on the market of egg products.
Review of Submissions (September 2003) Link to PDF document (151 KB)
Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Meat from Australia
Risk Analysis (April 2003): Link to PDF document (56 KB) Analysis of the risks of importing processed camel meat from Australia.
As this review document was not released for public consultation, no review of submissions was prepared.
Canadian Salmon
Risk Analysis (September 1994) Link to PDF document (5192 KB) An analysis of the risk of introduction of exotic diseases of fish through importation of ocean-caught Pacific salmon from Canada.
As this review document was not released for public consultation, no review of submissions was prepared.
Catfish meat for human consumption
Draft Risk Analysis (November 2007) Link to PDF document (337 KB) This risk analysis examined the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of frozen, skinless and boneless fillet meat of pangasid catfish (Pangasius spp.) from Vietnam.
Review of Submissions (September 2008) Link to PDF document (669 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (September 2008) Link to PDF document (311 KB)

Supplementary Risk Analysis (April 2010) Link to PDF document (166 KB)This document extends the risk analysis for catfish from Vietnam to include the same product from Malaysia.
Chicken and duck meat for human consumption
A draft import risk analysis examining the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of chilled or frozen meat and meat products derived from chickens (Gallus gallus) or ducks (Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos domestica or Anas peking, Muscovy ducks Cairina moschata, or a hybrid of these known as mulard or moulard ducks) has been completed (October 2012) and is available on request.
After the Animal Imports team of MPI has analysed the options available and proposed draft measures for the effective management of identified risks, these will be presented in a draft IHS which is released together with the draft import risk analysis and a risk management proposal summarising the options analysis and the rationale for the proposed measures. This package of documents will be released for a six-week period of stakeholder consultation and stakeholder submissions in relation to these documents will be reviewed before a final IHS is issued.

Draft risk analysis (August 2013) (offsite link to www.biosecurity.govt.nz)
Chicken Meat and Chicken Meat Products; Bernard Matthews Foods Limited Turkey Meat Preparations from the United Kingdom
Risk Analysis (March 1999) Link to PDF document (782 KB): This risk analysis examines the potential for certain pathogens of animal and human health significance to be introduced into local poultry flocks as a result of the importation of chicken meat and specific turkey meat preparations from a single supplier in the UK.
Review of Submissions (September 1999) Link to PDF document (106 KB)
Revised Quantitative Risk Assessments on Chicken Meat
Risk Analysis (April 2000) Link to PDF document (495 KB): Following the 1999 import risk analysis and review of submissions, this risk analysis reassesses the risk of introducing infectious bursal disease virus and models the risk of introducing Newcastle disease virus in chicken meat of US origin.
Review of Submissions (November 2000) Link to PDF document (336 KB)
Cooked Duck Meat From Australia
Risk Analysis (September 2006): Link to PDF document (306 KB) This document is a qualitative analysis of the risks posed by the importation into New Zealand of six cooked duck meat products (specified in appendix 2) produced by the Australian company Luv-A-Duck Pty Ltd.
Review of Submissions (May 2007) Link to PDF document (1285 KB)
Egg powders from all countries
Draft Risk Analysis (May 2008) Link to PDF document (137 KB)
Review of Submissions (October 2008) Link to PDF document (213 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (October 2008) Link to PDF document (315 KB)
Meat and Meat Products
Risk Analysis (1991): Link to PDF document (372 KB) A technical assessment of the animal health risks posed of different meat products from different sources, to allow as wide a range of products as possible access to the New Zealand market without jeopardising the country's animal health status.
As this review document was not released for public consultation, no review of submissions was prepared.
Meat and meat products from ruminants and pigs
Risk Analysis (February 2014) Link to PDF document (1917 KB)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in pig meat
Risk Analysis (June 2006): Link to PDF document (626 KB) An analysis of the risk of PRRS virus through the importation of pig meat from countries that are not free from this disease.
Review of Submissions (June 2007) Link to PDF document (3346 KB)
Salmonids
Risk Analysis (September 1997) Link to PDF document (638 KB): This risk analysis was carried out as a result of a USA request for New Zealand to consider market access for wild Pacific salmon from the USA. The opportunity was taken to assess salmonids more generally.
Review of Submissions (August 1998) Link to PDF document (107 KB)
Sausage Casings from Small Ruminants
Rapid Risk Assessment (July 2010) Link to PDF document (465 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by the importation of natural sausage casings of ovine or caprine origin prepared by methods which are standard operating procedures in the international casings industry.
Tilapia Meat for human consumption
Draft Risk Analysis (September 2007): Link to PDF document (470 KB) This risk analysis examined the biosecurity risks associated with the importation into New Zealand of frozen skinless and boneless fillets (or mince derived from fillets) of tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from Brazil and China.
Review of Submissions (February 2008) Link to PDF document (185 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (March 2008) Link to PDF document (846 KB)

Supplementary Risk Analysis (April 2010) Link to PDF document (100 KB): This document extends the risk analysis for tilapia from China and Brazil to include the same product from five Southeast Asian countries - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.
Turkey Meat
Draft Risk Analysis (May 2010) Link to PDF document (1216 KB)An analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by the importation of chilled or frozen meat and meat products derived from turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo).
Final Risk Analysis (March 2011) Link to PDF document (1910 KB)
Fibre and Skins Hides & Skins
Draft Risk Analysis (November 2007): Link to PDF document (524 KB) An analysis of the risks associated with the importation of imported hideas and skins of ruminants, horses, pigs, lamoids and ratites for processing into leather.
Review of Submissions (April 2008) Link to PDF document (342 KB)
Final Risk analysis (April 2008) Link to PDF document (1150 KB)
Macropod fibre and skins from Australia
Risk Analysis (May 1999): Link to PDF document (31 KB) An assessment for importing kangaroo fibre and commercial shipments of kangaroo skins. It examines the risks to animal and human health posed by such imports, and suggests ways to manage those risks to an acceptable level.
As MAF did not receive any submissions on this risk analysis, , no review of submissions was prepared
Unprocessed fibre of sheep and goats
Risk Analysis (November 1998) Link to PDF document (487 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by the importation of unprocessed fibre of sheep and goats into New Zealand.
Weed seeds supplementary
Risk Analysis (May 1999) Link to PDF document (60 KB): This analysis is an addendum to the November 1999 risk analysis.
Review of Submissions (August 1999) Link to PDF document (27 KB)
Livestock: live animals and genetic material Argali Sheep Semen
Risk Analysis (September 2001) Link to PDF document (2065 KB): An analysis of the risks associated with the use in New Zealand of semen from an Argali (Ovis ammon polii). The risks attached to the inoculation into goats of homogenised mesenteric lymph node removed surgically from the ram are also assessed.
Review of Submissions (April 2002) Link to PDF document (579 KB)
Cattle from Australia, Canada, the European Union, and the United States of America
Draft Risk Analysis (June 2008)
Review of Submissions (February 2009) Link to PDF document (417 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (February 2009) Link to PDF document (916 KB)
Cattle germplasm from all countries
Draft Risk Analysis (June 2008)
Review of Submissions (February 2009) Link to PDF document (412 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (February 2009) Link to PDF document (781 KB)
Cervine Germplasm
Import Risk Analysis: Deer Germplasm (March 2011) Link to PDF document (762 KB)
An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of deer germplasm from any country. The germplasm imported must be collected and prepared to meet those minimum standards recommended in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.
Submissions close 29 April 2011.
Guidelines for Stakeholders (March 2011) Link to PDF document
Review of Submissions (July 2011) Link to PDF document (894 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (July 2011) Link to PDF document (1344 KB)
Equine germplasm from Australia, Canada, the European Union and the USA
Draft Risk Analysis (July 2009) Link to PDF document (727 KB)
As MAF did not receive any submissions on this risk analysis, , no review of submissions was prepared
Final Risk Analysis (December 2009) Link to PDF document (690 KB)

Horses and horse semen
Risk Analysis (January 2000) Link to PDF document (544 KB): Examines the disease risks associated with importing live horses and horse semen into New Zealand.
Review of Submissions (January 2000) Link to PDF document (137 KB)
Hendra virus requirements for horses with special consideration of horses vaccinated against Hendra virus
This document Link to PDF document (370 KB) examines the risks associated with importing Hendra vaccinated horses from Australia and documents the rationale for Import Health Standard (IHS) requirements.

Live sheep and goats from Australia
Draft Risk Analysis (May 2008)
Review of Submissions (February 2009) Link to PDF document (235 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (February 2009) Link to PDF document (498 KB)
Llamas and Alpacas from specified countries
Draft Risk Analysis (August 2010) Link to PDF document (1546 KB): Examines the risks involved with the importation of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos)
Final Import Risk Analysis (December 2010) Link to PDF document (705 KB)
Review of Submissions (November 2010) Link to PDF document (477 KB)
Pig semen
Draft Risk Analysis (January 2011) Link to PDF document (517 KB) This document examines the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of pig semen from Australia, Canada, Norway, the USA, and the European Union (EU).
Final Risk Analysis (December 2012) Link to PDF document (1237 KB) In March 2012, MPI released a draft IHS for the importation of pig semen into New Zealand from all countries.  This was developed from the 2011 draft IRA for pig semen from Australia, the USA, Canada, the European Union, and Norway.  The 2011 draft IRA identified six organisms of potential concern in porcine semen but did not assess the risk due to these since Australia, the USA, Canada, the European Union and Norway claim freedom from these diseases. Following stakeholder consultation on the draft IHS for the importation of porcine semen into New Zealand, this final IRA has been amended to assess the risks associated with porcine semen imported from all countries.
Schmallenberg virus in imported live animals and germplasm
Rapid Risk Assessment (February 2013) Link to PDF document (286 KB)
A new disease causing fever, reduced milk production, diarrhoea, and abortion emerged in Germany in August 2011. A virus was demonstrated by a newly developed real-time RT-PCR and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), according to the location where the disease was first described. Since then, disease caused by SBV has been reported throughout Europe.
Based on current knowledge, this assessment considers the risks posed by the introduction of SBV associated with any live animal species or germplasm from countries where this virus has been reported.
Scrapie in sheep and goat germplasm
Risk Analysis (January 2011) Link to PDF document (442 KB)
Review of Submissions (April 2011) Link to PDF document (723 KB): Review of Submission document published based on the stakeholder feedback from the draft RA dated January to March 2011
Final Risk Analysis (April 2011) Link to PDF document (875 KB)
Sheep and Goat Genetic Material
Risk Analysis (October 2005) Link to PDF document (915 KB): This risk analysis considers the risk of introduction of disease-causing organisms through the importation of sheep and goat genetic material (semen or embryos).
Review of Submissions (May 2006) Link to PDF document (587 KB)
Seropositive animals
Policy review (July 1999): Link to PDF document (401 KB) An analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by importing live cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs, should they be found seropositive during post-arrival quarantine.
Non-Edible Animal Products Fish Food
Draft Risk Analysis (November 2007): Link to PDF document (260 KB) An analysis of the risks posed by the following commodities imported as fish food: rendered poultry products, rendered fishmeal, Artemia spp, zooplankton such as Daphnia spp, krill, mysdia shrimps, blood worms.
Review of Submissions (April 2008) Link to PDF document
Final Risk Analysis (April 2008) Link to PDF document (250 KB)
Non-Viable Biological Products, Microorganisms and other Viable Cells into New Zealand
Final Risk Analysis (December 2005) Link to PDF document (428 KB)
Zoo Animals Antelopes
Risk Analysis (May 2000) Link to PDF document (362 KB): An analysis of the disease risks of introducing live antelope into New Zealand.
Review of Submissions (August 2000) Link to PDF document (22 KB)
Crocodilia and eggs of Crocodilia
Risk Analysis (November 2007) Link to PDF document (170 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of live animals and hatching eggs of species within the Order Crocodilia (Class Reptilia) from Australia.
As MAF did not receive any submissions on this risk analysis, , no review of submissions was prepared
Squamata from government approved collections in Australia
Draft Risk Analysis (May 2008) Link to PDF document (546 KB)
Review of Submissions (October 2008) Link to PDF document (76 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (October 2008) Link to PDF document (335 KB)

Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii/ Sarcophilus laniarius) from Australia
Draft Risk Analysis (August 2009) Link to PDF document (385 KB)
Review of Submissions: No submission received.
Final Risk Analysis (November 2009) Link to PDF document (384 KB)

White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from Australia
Draft Risk Analysis (July 2009) Link to PDF document (553 KB)
Review of Submissions (December 2009) Link to PDF document (85 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (December 2009) Link to PDF document (631 KB)
Zoo primates from Australia, Canada, the European Union, USA and Singapore
Draft Risk Analysis (February 2011) attach PDF Link to PDF document (637 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of 19 species of nonhuman primates from zoos in Australia, Canada, the EU, the USA and Singapore.
Review of Submissions: No submission received.
Final Risk Analysis (April 2011) Link to PDF document (1065 KB)
Apple (Malus domestica) nursery stock micro-organisms and diseases
Final Import Risk Analysis (July 2012) Link to PDF document (1188 KB): An analysis of the viruses, viroids, phytoplasma, bacteria and diseases of unknown aetiology on Malus nursery stock from all countries.
Fresh Citrus fruit (7 species) from Samoa
Review of Submissions (October 2008) Link to PDF document (223 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (October 2008) Link to PDF document (1059 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with importing into New Zealand Citrus fruits from Samoa.
Fresh Coconut (Cocos nucifera) from Tuvalu
Final Risk Analysis (January 2009) Link to PDF document (1965 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with importing into New Zealand fresh Coconut (Cocos nucifera) from Tuvalu

Review of Submissions: No submissions received.
Fresh Island cabbage leaves (Abelmoschus manihot) from Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu
Final Risk Analsis (September 2011) (offsite link to www.mpi.govt.nz): This Risk Analysis was initiated by a new market access request from 5 Pacific countries for the importation of fresh island cabbage leaves (Abelmoschus manihot, Malvaceae) to New Zealand from Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Vanuatu. New Zealand currently imports only frozen island cabbage leaves from Fiji.
Fresh Stonefruit from Idaho, Oregon and Washington (USA)
Draft Risk Analysis (January 2009) Link to PDF document (2275 KB)
Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fresh fruit from Australia
Risk Analysis (September 2008) Link to PDF document (985 KB)
Review of Submissions (September 2008) Link to PDF document (619 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with importing into New Zealand fresh fruits of Litchi (Litchi chinensis) from Australia.
Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fresh fruit from Taiwan
Risk Analysis (October 2007) Link to PDF document (1086 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with importing into New Zealand fresh fruits of Litchi (Litchi chinensis) from Taiwan.

Review of Submissions: No submissions received.
Miscanthus tissue cultures from Great Britain and the USA
Risk Analysis (December 2007) Link to PDF document (526 KB): An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with importing into New Zealand tissue cultures of Miscanthus plants from Great Britain and the USA.
Onions (Allium cepa Liliaceae) Fresh Bulbs for Consumption from China
Draft Risk Analysis (June 2009) Link to PDF document (1792 KB)
Pears (Pyrus bretschneideri, Pyrus pyrifolia, and Pyrus sp. nr. communis) fresh fruit from China
Review of Submissions (October 2009) Link to PDF document (478 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (October 2009) Link to PDF document (2768 KB)
Table grapes (Vitis vinifera) from China
Review of Submissions (October 2009) Link to PDF document (237 KB)
Final Risk Analysis (October 2009) Link to PDF document (1721 KB)
Tomato and Capsicum Seed
Draft Risk Analysis (April 2012) (offsite link to www.maf.govt.nz) An analysis of the viruses and viroids that are transmitted by seeds of Capsicum species and/or tomato.
Wollemia nobilis (Wollemi pine) Nursery Stock from Australia
Risk Analysis (March 2008) Link to PDF document (1389 KB) An analysis of the biosecurity risks associated with importing into New Zealand nursery stock of Wollemia nobilis (Wollemi pine) from Australia
Summary of Submissions (March 2008) Link to PDF document (1062 KB)
Fruit fly host material from Australia
Technical Advice (June 2012) Link to PDF document (291 KB) This technical paper provides advice on the potential level of protection required for fruit fly host material imported from Australia and options for achieving the identified level of protection.
Inorganic Fertiliser
Import Risk Analysis (September 2012) (offsite link to www.mpi.govt.nz) This risk analysis examines the biosecurity risks posed by the importation of fertiliser into New Zealand, and identifies factors for consideration in managing these risks. The risk analysis will contribute to the revision of current Import Health Standards.
Vehicles and Machinery
Risk Analysis (2007) Link to PDF document (1520 KB) This risk analysis examines the biosecurity risks posed by the importation of new and used vehicles and machinery into New Zealand, and includes recommendations to be considered for managing these risks.
Review of Submissions (June 2007) Link to PDF document (1527 KB)
Pasture Pests
MPI and pastoral sector stakeholders have worked in partnership to understand the pests that could threaten New Zealand’s important pasture species. There are frequently asked questions about this work and a report entitled ‘Pasture pest hazard identification’, that is accompanied by another report: ‘Biosecurity risk management of entry pathways of pasture pests’. The latter report describes the current biosecurity protection that exists across the New Zealand biosecurity system, with a particular focus on the potential entry pathways of pasture pests.
Foot and mouth disease virus associated with imported palm kernel extract meal
Risk Analyisis (March 2013) Link to PDF document (479 KB): Palm kernel extract (PKE) meal is imported from a number of countries as supplemental feed for dairy cattle in New Zealand. Any contamination of unprocessed palm fruit with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) prior to manufacture would be unlikely to persist during manufacture. However, if unmanaged, contamination of manufactured PKE meal prior to shipment could be a source of FMDV introduction into New Zealand. Reliable certification that PKE meal has been stored and transported in a manner that avoids contact with FMDV-susceptible livestock may be sufficient to effectively manage this risk. Alternatively, manufactured PKE meal could be securely stored for a period sufficient to ensure deactivation of any contaminating FMDV prior to export (three months is suggested, reflecting the current international standard for managing the risk of FMDV associated with straw or forage from an infected country).
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)
Risk Analyisis (November 2012) Link to PDF document (415 KB): This analysis assesses the biosecurity risks associated with Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug) entering New Zealand via all likely entry pathways. The results of this work will determine how effective the existing risk management on the main entry pathways is for managing the biosecurity risks posed by H. halys. The analysis also considers alternative risk management options.
Drosophila suzukii: spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on fresh fruit from the USA
Risk Assessment (June 2012) Link to PDF document (703 KB): This document is an analysis of the risks associated with spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii) entering New Zealand via approved commercially produced fresh fruit from the United States of America. SWD, a vinegar or pomace fly native to Southeast Asia, is an emerging pest that is currently invading large parts of Europe and the Americas. Adult flies attack fresh, ripe fruit by laying eggs under the skin. The larvae grow inside the fruit, destroying its commercial value.
Puccinia psidii on Nursery Stock
Risk Analysis (July 2011) Link to PDF document (700 KB): This document is an analysis of the risks associated with the rust fungus Puccinia psidii entering New Zealand via the myrtaceous nursery stock import pathway; it includes an analysis of the efficacy of risk management options. P. psidii causes rust disease, known variously as guava rust, myrtle rust, eucalyptus rust or ohio rust, of a wide range of host plants in the family myrtaceae. As New Zealand has myrtaceous species of economic, environmental and socio-cultural importance, P. psidii is considered to be a risk organism on myrtaceous nursery stock.
Crazy Ants (Paratrechina longicornis)
Crazy Ants Risk Assessment Link to PDF document (1105 KB)
Black Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis richteri)
Black Imported Fire Ant Risk Assessment Link to PDF document (1072 KB)
Ghost Ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum)
Ghost Ants Risk Assessment Link to PDF document (1125 KB)
Lasius neglectus
Lasius neglectus Risk Assessment Link to PDF document (994 KB)
Little Fire Ants (Wasmannia auropunctata)
Little Fire Ants Risk Assessment Link to PDF document (1050 KB)
Red Imported Fire Ant
Release Assessment (August 2002) Link to PDF document (1208 KB)
Red imported fire ant (RIFA) (Solenopsis invicta) is a native ant species of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. It has also established in Queensland, Australia. A single nest was discovered at Auckland International Airport, New Zealand in February 2001. The routes of entry of the Australian and the New Zealand incursions are unknown.

Sea Spurge
Euphorbia paralias is a long lived herbaceous coastal plant native to North Africa, western Asia, and Europe and invasive in Australia. Seeds are buoyant and can be spread very large distances by ocean currents. Once established, E. paralias develops dense infestations which prevent natural sand movement, altering dune communities, threatening some rare coastal plants, and contributing to the decline of some species of nesting shore birds. Euphorbia paralias has been reported as invading pastoral land adjacent to coastal areas in Australia reducing pasture available for stock grazing. Additionally, the latex sap of E. paralias is considered poisonous and causes skin and eye irritation.

Euphorbia paralias has been detected at one site near Aotea Heads Scientific Reserve, Waikato, but is not considered to be established in New Zealand. This population is considered to be as a result of seed movement on ocean currents from Australia. While it is not possible to prevent the arrival of seed from Australia it is possible to reduce to zero density populations that are detected, thereby mitigating the consequences of establishment.

Management options to achieve the goal of exclusion include targeted surveillance to identify likely areas of introduction; plant removal and long term monitoring to prevent re-growth of the population from the seed bank; and sand sieving, or sand removal, to prevent germination of seeds within the seed bank or seed movement due to high tide and storm events.

Singapore Ants (Monomorium destructor)
Singapore Ants Risk Assessment Link to PDF document (1006 KB)
Tropical Fire Ants (Solenopsis geminata)
Tropical Fire Ants Risk Assessment Link to PDF document (1302 KB)
Yellow Crazy Ants (Anololepis gracilipes)
Yellow Crazy Ants Risk Assessment Link to PDF document (1217 KB)
Ants on Sawn Timber Imported from the South Pacific Region
Pest Risk Analysis (April 2003) Link to PDF document (965 KB): Investigates the risks of importing unwanted species of ants with commercial consignments of sawn timber exported to New Zealand from the south Pacific region (excluding Australia), the likelihood of those imported ants establishing in New Zealand, the effectiveness of the biosecurity measures and border clearance systems currently in place and mitigating those risks, and any additional biosecurity measures that may be required to reduce the biosecurity risk to an acceptable level.
Pest risk analysis for six moth species: lessons for the biosecurity system on managing hitchhiker organisms
Final Risk Analysis (December 2008) Link to PDF document (4354 KB): A pest risk analysis on six species of moth, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth, Asian form), Hyphantria cunea (fall webworm), Coscinoptycha improbana (guava moth), Teia anartoides (painted apple moth), Orgyia thyellina (white-spotted tussock moth) and Uraba lugens (gum leaf skeletoniser), assessing a wide range of entry pathways and providing lessons on the risks associated with hitchhiker organisms in general.

No submissions received on the moths risk analysis.
Pinewood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)
Pest Risk Analysis (October 2004) Link to PDF document (4958 KB): Investigates a number of factors associated with the phytosanitary risk of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus -pinewood nematode (PWN) and other pathogenic Bursaphelenchus spp to New Zealand.

Page last updated: 28 July 2014